A process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost.
Biologically determined time periods for the development of skills
Biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily.
- A strong emotional connection that persist over time and across circumstances
- Attachment style for a majority of infants, who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separation
Attachment style in which infants ignore their caregiver when he or she returns after a brief separation.
- Attachment style in which infants become extremely upset when their caregiver leaves but reject the caregiver when he or she returns.
Attachment style in which infants give mixed responses when their caregiver leaves and then returns from a short absence.
The inability to remember events from early childhood
the process by which new experience is places into an existing schema
The process by which a schema is changed to incorporate a new experience that does not easily fit into an existing schema.
The understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen.
Theory of mind
Term used to describe the ability to explain and predict other people's behavior as a result of recognizing their mental state.
- Earliest level of moral development, in which self-interest determines what is moral.
Middle stage of moral development, in which rules and the approval of others determine what is moral.
Highest stage of moral development, in which decisions about morality depend on abstract principles
The tendency for children to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markings but follow logical syntax.
The maturation of skills or abilities that enable people to live in a world with other people.
Personal beliefs about whether one is male or female
- The characteristics associated with males and females because of cultural influence or learning
Cognitive structures that influence how people perceive the behaviors of females and males
A disorder of the mind
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)-
The occurrence of 2 or more identities in the same individual.
A diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event
Family System Model
A diagnostic model that considers symptoms within an individual as indicating problems within the family.
A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures.
A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive cognitions.
An anxiety disorder marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible.
False personal beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality.
- False sensory perceptions that are experienced without an external source
Loosening of Associations
A speech pattern among schizophrenic patients in which their thoughts are disorganized or meaningless.
- Acting in strange or unusual ways, including strange movements of limbs, bizarre speech, inappropriate self-care, such as failing to dress properly or bathe.
Borderline personality Disorder
Personality disorder characterized by identity, affective, and impulse disturbances.
Antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder marked by lack of empathy and remorse.
- A developmental disorder involving deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted interest.
Attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD)
A disorder characterized by restless, inattentive, and impulsive behaviors.
Client centered therapy
An emphatic approach to therapy; it encourages personal growth through greater understanding.
Drugs that effect mental processes
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-
A procedure used to treat depression; involves administering a strong electrical current to the patient's brain.
Dialectical Behavior therapy (DBT)-
A form of therapy used to treat borderline personality disorder.