Anaphylactic shock manifests with the rapid onset of which set of symptoms?
Dyspnea, hypotension, and urticaria
Clinical manifestations of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower leg include:
pain and edema in the affected limb
Malignant hypertension can result in which of the following life-threatening complications? Cerebrovascular accident, Encephalopathy, Cardiac failure or All of the above
All of the above
Atherosclerosis of the aorta can cause isolated systolic hypertension by:
decreasing arterial distensibility.
Which of the following events initiates the process of atherosclerosis? Oxidation of LDL in the vessel wall, Formation of the fatty streak in the tunica media, Thrombosis in the vessel lumen, or Endothelial injury and release of cytokines
Endothelial injury and release of cytokines
Which of the following shock states manifests with tachycardia, vasoconstriction, and movement of large volumes of interstitial fluid to the vascular compartment?
A consequence of switching from aerobic to anaerobic cellular metabolism during shock states is:
Which of the following conditions presents the most significant risk factor for developing septic shock? Use of immunosuppressant medications, History of severe allergies, Diagnosed with chronic congestive heart failure, or Genetic predisposition to disorders of hemostasis
Use of immunosuppressant medications
Complications of sustained hypertension include which of the following? Retinal damage, Stroke, Renal disease or all of the above?
all of the above
Orthostatic hypotension refers to a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure when an individual:
According to the Joint National Commission Seventh Report (JNC VII), normal blood pressure is defined as:
systolic pressure less than 120 mm Hg and diastolic pressure less than 80 mm Hg.
Which of the following white blood cells play a role in the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis? Mast cells, Neutrophils, Macrophages or Lymphocytes
Symptoms of stable angina include all of the following except: severe substernal pain that lasts more than a few hours, discomfort that radiates to the left neck or jaw, dizziness or shortness of breath.
severe substernal pain that lasts more than a few hours.
A patient is diagnosed with chronic pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which of the following heart failures generally results from this condition? Right heart failure, Left heart failure, Low-output failure or High-output failure
Right heart failure
Over time, sustained hypertension can result in which of the following problems? Insulin resistance, Vascular remodeling, Retention of fluid by the kidneys or Hormone dysfunction
Prinzmetal angina is caused by:
Factors associated with endothelial injury in atherosclerosis include all of the following except: Autoimmunity, anemia, bacterial infection or smoking.
Which of the following valve disorders is most likely to result in left ventricular failure? Aortic stenosis, Aortic regurgitation, Mitral regurgitation or all of the above
all of the above
An unstable plaque in the coronary arteries can result in which of the following complications? Myocardial infarction, Stable angina, Hypertension or Abnormal vasodilation
Which of the following forms of hyperdyslipidemia is associated with the development of the fatty streak in atherosclerosis? High LDL, Low LDL, High HDL or Low triglycerides
Manifestations of increased left atrial and pulmonary venous pressures in left (congestive) heart failure include:
dyspnea and cough.
Which problem is a pathophysiological consequence common to all shock states?
Which of the following shock states is (are) characterized by acute, severe bronchoconstriction? Cardiogenic, Anaphylactic, Hypovolemic or All of the above
When a myocardial infarction occurs, the myocardial cells surrounding the infarct undergo structural and functional changes. Which one of the following changes can be observed in these tissues following a myocardial infarction? Temporary increase in contractile activity, Increased metabolism, Myocardial remodeling or Necrosis
Dysfunction in the normal secretion of natriuretic hormones affects renal reabsorption of:
Low levels of which molecule contributes to the pathophysiology of septic shock?
Activated protein C
Which of the following patients should be monitored for superior vena cava syndrome? A 76-year-old man with congestive heart failure, A 56-year-old woman with bronchogenic (lung) cancer, A 26-year-old woman who has just delivered her first child or A 6-year-old child with severe asthma
A 56-year-old woman with bronchogenic (lung) cancer
In the elderly, aortic stenosis usually results from which of the following conditions? congenital disorders, rheumatic heart disease, degeneration and calcification of the valve or Marfan syndrome.
degeneration and calcification of the valve.
A risk factor that is associated with atherosclerosis and primary hypertension is:
Elevated levels of which of the following markers are indicative of an acute myocardial infarction? Albumin, Sodium, Isoenzyme of creatine phosphate (CK-MB) and Troponin 1 or LDL
Isoenzyme of creatine phosphate (CK-MB) and Troponin 1
Of the following diseases, which is the most common cause of right heart failure? Primary hypertension, Infective endocarditis, Left heart failure or Pericarditis
Left heart failure
Which of the following chronic diseases places an individual at high risk for silent myocardial ischemia caused by dysfunction of the autonomic nerves carrying sensory information to the brain? Alzheimer disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension or Emphysema
In shock, how does the body maintain blood glucose levels once available glucose and glycogen stores are used up?
By breaking down protein to fuel gluconeogenesis
Which of the following pathophysiological events causes the severe hypotension observed in neurogenic shock? Increased capillary permeability, Diuresis, Decreased peripheral vascular resistance or
All of the above
Infective endocarditis is most often caused by:
Which of shock state is characterized by vasodilation of the systemic arteries?
Anaphylactic shock occurs in response to severe:
The pathophysiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) can be described though three processes, known as Virchow's triad. Which of the following is not a component of Virchow's triad? Endothelial injury, LDL accumulation, Venous stasis or Hypercoagulable state
Individuals with Raynaud disease experience vasospasm in the small arteries of the fingers under which of the following conditions?
A ruptured cerebral aneurysm often will result in:
The most common cause of coronary artery disease is:
The most common consequence of atherosclerosis is:
obstruction of the blood vessel lumen.
Standing for long periods of time causes blood to pool in superficial veins. The result is the development of:
Aortic stenosis results in the incomplete emptying of the:
The most common cause of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is:
Neurogenic shock is caused by:
a lack of sympathetic activity.
Why is myocardial ischemia usually reversible within 20 minutes of interruption of coronary blood flow?
Anaerobic metabolism maintains cellular integrity for approximately 20 minutes.
Older adults with chronic orthostatic hypotension are at risk for:
Many valvular stenosis and regurgitation disorders in adults have a common etiology. Which of the following can result in both types of valve dysfunction? Rheumatic heart disease, Syphilis infection, Connective tissue disorders or Heart failure
Connective tissue disorders
Which set of clinical manifestations is highly characteristic of a septic shock state?
Tachycardia, generalized edema, and warm skin
Clinical manifestations of hypovolemic shock include all of the following except: pulmonary edema, tachycardia, hypotension, oliguria.
The most common cardiac valve disease in the United States, which tends to be most prevalent in young women, is:
mitral valve prolapse.
Mitogens, such as angiotensin II, contribute to the development of atherosclerosis by stimulating which of the following events?Smooth muscle proliferation, Endothelial injury, Cardiac muscle toxicity or Activation of phagocytes
Smooth muscle proliferation
Which of the following conditions is caused by the collection of fluid in the pericardial sac, resulting in tamponade? Pericardial rub, Pericardial effusion, Cardiomyopathy or Constrictive pericarditis
In the development of primary hypertension, increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity causes:
What is the primary cause of hypotension in early stages of septic shock?
Causes of hypovolemic shock include all of the following except: Dehydration, blood loss, brainstem injury or diuresis.
Which of the following conditions is not a potential cause of cardiogenic shock? Tension pneumothorax, Spinal cord injury, Tamponade or Cardiac arrhythmias
Spinal cord injury
Unstable angina is considered a precursor to:
Secondary MODS is defined as the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems resulting from:
an uncontrolled inflammatory response.
In MODS, which of the following events contribute to organ failure? Microvascular clotting, Interstitial edema, Exhaustion of fuel supply or All of the above
All of the above.
An individual with secondary hypertension has an abnormal blood pressure caused by:
a systemic disease.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) results in which of the following intraventricular hemodynamic changes? Increased left ventricular preload, Increased ejection fraction, Decreased right ventricular preload or Decreased right ventricular end-diastolic pressure
Increased left ventricular preload
The most important component in the development of acute coronary syndromes is a decrease in supply or an increase in demand for: