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Taken from multiple sets and combined into one

body

Blood vessels carry blood to every part of your __________.

oxygen

Blood moves __________ and nutrients to cells.

nutrients

Blood moves oxygen and __________ to cells.

carbon dioxide

Blood carries __________ __________ and other wastes away from cells.

wastes

Blood carries carbon dioxide and other __________ away from cells.

diffusion

Movement of materials into and out of your cells occurs by __________ and active transport.

cardiac

Your heart is made of __________ muscle tissue.

four

Your heart has __________ chambers.

atriums

The two upper chambers of your heart are called __________.

ventricles

The two lower chambers of your heart are called __________.

valve

A one-way __________ separates each atrium from the ventricle below it.

mixing

The wall between the right and left ventricles and atriums prevents oxygen poor blood from __________ with oxygen rich blood.

three

Scientists have divided the circulatory system into __________ sections.

coronary

The flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart is called __________ circulation.

pulmonary

The flow of blood through the heart to the lungs and back to the heart is called __________ circulation.

oxygen

When blood is pumped into your lungs __________ is picked up by red blood cells.

carbon dioxide

When blood is pumped to your lungs __________ __________ is released by red blood cells.

arteries

Blood vessels that pump blood away from the heart are called __________.

oxygen

Arteries carry blood that is rich in __________.

pulmonary

The right ventricle is connected to the __________ artery.

aorta

The left ventricle is connected to the __________.

aorta

The largest artery in the human body is called the __________.

veins

The blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart are called __________.

valves

Veins have one-way __________ that keep blood moving toward the heart.

superior vena cava

The __________ __________ __________ returns blood from your head and neck back to the heart.

inferior vena cava

The __________ __________ __________ returns blood from your abdomen and lower body back to the heart.

capillaries

Arteries and veins are connected by microscopic blood vessels called __________.

one

The walls of capillaries are only __________ cell thick.

diffuse

Nutrients and oxygen __________ into body cells through the thin capillary walls.

diffuse

Waste materials and carbon dioxide __________ from body cells into the capillaries.

arteries

Blood pressure is highest in __________.

veins

Blood pressure is lowest in __________.

blood pressure

The force of the blood on the walls of the blood vessels is called __________ __________.

heartbeat

The rise and fall of your blood pressure in your blood vessels occurs with each __________.

systolic

When you measure blood pressure when the heart contracts your are measuring __________ pressure.

diastolic

When you measure blood pressure when the heart relaxes your are measuring __________ pressure.

normal

Your body tries to keep blood pressure __________.

heart

In the United States the leading cause of death is __________ disease.

atherosclerosis

A disease called __________ occurs when fatty deposits build up on the walls of arteries.

hypertension

What is another name for high blood pressure?

heart failure

What happens when the heart cannot pump blood efficiently?

salt

To prevent cardiovascular disease you should choose to eat foods that are low in __________, sugar, cholesterol, and saturated fats.

sugar

To prevent cardiovascular disease you should choose to eat foods that are low in salt, __________, cholesterol, and saturated fats.

cholesterol

To prevent cardiovascular disease you should choose to eat foods that are low in salt, sugar, ____________, and saturated fats.

saturated fats

To prevent cardiovascular disease you should choose to eat foods that are low in salt, sugar, cholesterol, and ____________ ____________.

relax

Learning to __________ and having a regular program of exercise can help prevent tension and relieve stress.

exercise

Learning to relax and having a regular program of __________ can help prevent tension and relieve stress.

smoke

Another way to prevent cardiovascular disease is to not __________.

faster

Smoking causes the blood vessels to contract, and makes the heart beat __________ and harder.

harder

Smoking causes blood vessels to contract and makes the heart beat faster and __________.

kidneys

Blood carries waste products from your cells to your __________ to be removed.

nutrients

Blood transports __________ and other substances to your body cells.

infections

Cells and molecules in blood fight __________ and help heal wounds.

plasma

The liquid part of blood is called __________.

plasma

Which part of your blood transports dissolved nutrients, minerals, and oxygen?

red blood cells

Which blood cell contains hemoglobin?

hemoglobin

A molecule found in red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carbon dioxide is called __________.

white blood cells

Which blood cell fights bacteria, viruses, and other invaders of your body?

platelets

Which blood cell helps clot blood?

four

In humans there are __________ blood types.

antigens

Blood types A, B, and AB have chemical identification tags called __________.

red blood cells

Antigens can be found on the surface of which blood cells?

antigens

Blood type O has no __________ on the surface of red blood cells.

antibodies

In blood types A, B, and O there are __________ that destroy or neutralize substances that do not belong in or are not part of your body.

O, A

If you have type A blood you can receive blood from blood types __________ and __________.

O, B

If you have blood type B you can receive blood from blood types __________ and __________.

all

If you have blood type AB you can receive blood from __________ blood types.

O

If you have blood type O you can receive blood from blood type __________.

A, AB

You have blood type A and you want to donate blood. Which other blood types can you donate blood to?

B, AB

You have blood type B and you want to donate blood. Which other blood types can you donate blood to?

AB

You have blood type AB and you want to donate blood. Which other blood types can you donate blood to?

all

You have blood type O and you want to donate blood. Which other blood types can you donate blood to?

A antigens

You have blood type A. What antigens are found on your red blood cells?

B antigens

You have blood type B. What antigens are found on your red blood cells?

A and B antigens

You have blood type AB. What antigens are found on your red blood cells?

No antigens

You have blood type O. What antigens are found on your red blood cells?

Anti-B antibodies

What antibodies can be found in the blood of a person with blood type A?

Anti-A antibodies

What antibodies can be found in the blood of a person with blood type B?

No antibodies

What antibodies can be found in the blood of a person with blood type AB?

Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies

What antibodies can be found in the blood of a person with blood type O?

Rh+

If the Rh factor is on red blood cells, the person has __________ blood.

Rh-

If the Rh factor is not on red blood cells, the person has __________ blood.

No

Can a person with Rh+ blood donate blood to a person with Rh- blood?

Yes

Can a person with Rh- blood donate blood to a person with Rh+ blood?

pericardium

layer that encloses the heart

left

direction in which the heart points

visceral pericardium

layer also known as the epicardium

parietal pericardium

separated from the epicardium by the pericardial cavity

epicardium

layer that protects the heart by reducing friction

myocardium

thick middle layer of the wall of the heart; composed of smooth, cardiac muscle

endocardium

inner layer of the heart wall consisting of epithelium and connective tissue as well as some specialized muscle tissue

atria

receive blood from lungs and body

ventricles

receive blood from atria and force into body

septum

separates right and left sides of heart

tricuspid valve

between right atrium and ventricle

chordae tendinae

fibers attatched to the tricuspid valve which pull it closed when papillary muscles contract, preventing backwash of blood

papillary muscles

responsible for pulling the atrioventricular valves closed by means of the chordae tendineae

pulmonary valve

link between right ventricle and artery extending from it

bicuspid (mitral) valve

between left atrium and ventricle

aorta

largest artery in the body

aortic valve

between the left ventricle and the largest artery in the body

semilunar valves

pulmonary valve and aortic valve

skeleton of the heart

rings of dense connective tissure surrounding the pulmonary trunk and aorta

coronary arteries

first two branches of the aorta; feed the heart

agina pectoris

extreme chest pain caused by blockage (thrombus) of coronary arteries

coronary thrombosis

blood clot completely blocking a coronary artery, causes a heart attack

myocardial infarction

another name for heart attack

coronary sinus

enlarged vein from junctions of coronary veins which empty into the right atrium

systole

contraction of heart muscle

diastole

relaxation of heart muscle

cardiac cycle

atrial systole/ventricular diastole, ventricular systole/atrial diastole, brief complete diastole

functional syncytium

mass of merging cells that function as a unit

cardiac conduction system

fibers of cardiac muscle tissue which distribute impulses over the entire heart

sinoatrial node

small, elongated mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue just beneath the epicardium in the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava-starts impulses

pacemaker

common name for S-A node

atrioventricular node

only normal conduction pathway between the atrial and ventricular syncytia

A-V bundle

group of fibers which receive impluse from the atrioventricular node; also known as the bundle of His

Purkinje fibers

extend from branches of A-V bundle, stimulate muscle fibers in the ventricular walls

electrocardiogram (ECG)

recording of the electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle

waves

deflection in a ECG

P wave

in an ECG corresponds to depolarization of the atrial fibers (leads to contraction

QRS complex

in ECG corresponding to depolarization of ventrical membranes, much stronger!!

T wave

in ECG last wave of cardiac cycle corresponding to repolarization

acetylcholine

decreases S-A and A-V nodal activity; leads to heart rate decrease

baroreceptors

detect changes in blood pressure

auricle

expandable extension of the atruim

coronary sulcus

groove that marks border between atria and ventricles

interatrial septum

separates the two atria

interventricular septum

separates the two ventricles

pectinate muscles

prominent muscular ridges along the inner surface of the auricle and across the adjacent anterior atrial wall

foramen ovale

penetrates interatrial septum from fifth week of embryonic development until birth

fossa ovalis

small depression of site of prior foramen ovale

trabeculae carneae

muscular ridges on the internal surface of the ventricles

heart

hollow, muscular organ in the center of the chest that pumps blood throughout the body

septum

a wall of tissue that separates the left and right sides of the heart

blood vessels

hollow tubes that transport blood through the body

arteries

take blood away from the heart

capillaries

smallest blood vessels; materials are exchanged between the blood and the body's cells

veins

carry blood back to the heart

blood

connective tissue that includes plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets

atria

upper chambers of the heart that receive blood that comes into the heart

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