Name 3 benefits of networking communications systems.
- The sharing of information; Information availability; The ability to access information from a distance
What provides: long haul data, voice, video, transport networks, services and is referred to as the backbone of the Global Information Grid?
Defense Information System Network (DISN)
What resides on a Motherboard?
Processors; Memory; Buses; Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
What computer bus allows hot-swappable peripheral connections?
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
What type of computer memory has the goal to reduce data access times?
What RAID level only increases access speed and does not provide redundancy?
RAID level 0
What is the conceptual model that describes how information from on computer system moves across a network to another computer system?
Open Systems Interconnection Model (OSI)
What are the seven layers of the OSI model?
7. Application; 6. Presentation; 5. Session; 4. Transport; 3. Network; 2. Data Link; 1. Physical
What are the two sections the seven layers can be divided into?
Layers 1-4, handle data transport issues; layers 5-7, handles application specific issues
What OSI layer is responsible for end-to-end connections?
Layer 4 "Transport Layer"
What OSI layer uses logical (IP) addressing and makes best path determinations?
Layer 3 "Network Layer"
What OSI layer uses Media Access Control (MAC) addresses and combines packets into frames?
Layer 2 "Data Link Layer"
What OSI layer actually puts the binary on the transmission media?
Layer 1 "Physical Layer"
List the three layers of the Cisco Hierarchical model, and briefly describe each.
Core Layer: Responsible for transporting large amounts of traffic both reliability & quickly; Distribution Layer: Provides routing, filtering, and WAN access and to determine how packets can access the core, if needed; Access Layer: Controls user & work-group access to internet work resources
When a router or a switch first boots up, what operation takes places first?
It runs the POST :Power-On-Self-Test"
What metrics does EIGRP use to select the best possible path, and what is the default metric?
What switch or router command would display the information in the running configuration file?
Router WAN connections are usually associated with what type of connection/transmission?
What is the type of encapsulation needs to be considered/selected when preparing a router WAN connection?
Cisco only supports HDLC, PPP, and Frame Relay on it's serial interfaces [Need to consider Point-to-Point encapsulation]
If you want to configure PPP authentication on a Cisco router WAN connection, what configuration steps must be set?
First, the host name of the router must be set, then the username and password for the remote router that will be connecting to your router must be set. (HDLC & PPP)
What is the Cisco default WAN encapsulation?
HDLC "High Level Data Link Control"
What non-proprietary WAN encapsulation supports authentication?
PPP "Point to Point" - Non-Proprietary; Allows Authentication
What OSI layer uses data encryption, compression and transmission services to define data representation?
Layer 6 "Presentation Layer"
What device connects multiple Ethernet segments together so they act like a single segment (one collision domain)?
What device maintains MAC address tables and uses these physical addresses to transmit data across a network?
Switches speed up LAN by implementing full-duplex operations. Can a switch connect to a hub using full duplex?
What are the three types of RJ-45 connector cables we've talked about, and what connections do they make in our LAN?
Straight through > Connects unlike devices; Cross-Over > Connects like devices; Roll Over > used to console into a switch/router
What device works at the network layer to forward data using logical (IP) addresses?
In a Cisco device, what command lets you advance from user mode to privileged mode?
From user mode (>), what command string would allow you to set a router's hostname to Keesler?
-Router# config t
-Router(config)# Hostname Keesler
When setting a message of the day (MOTD) banner, what must precede and follow the MOTD statement that you want displayed?
A delimiting character, this tells the router you're done, such as # Stay off the Router #
In router lab environment often there are no DCE devices, so when two routers are connected via serial connection, one router acts as a DCE device while the other router remains a DTE device. What special commands are applied to the DCE serial interface?
-Router# config t
-Router(config)# int s0/0
-Router(config-int) bandwidth 64
-Router(config-int) clock rate 64000
What does the Cisco Discovery Protocol command: CDP timer 90 do?
Sets the rate in seconds, at this CDP packets are sent
What CISCO switch commands are required enable inter-VLAN trunking on interface FA0/23?
-Router# config t
-Router(config)# int fa0/0
-Router(config-int) switchport mode trunk
What Cisco proprietary routing protocol is classless and will support VLSM networks?
What router configuration technique supports inter-VLAN routing by allowing multiple IP address to be assigned to a single physical address?
What routing option ensures that routing information is not advertised out the same port it was received?
What router options implements a list of conditions that will categorize and control network traffic?
Give an example of a standard access list that would only permit 172.30.100.34 access to deny all other network traffic.
Access-list 10 permit 172.30.100.34
What are the three layer-2 switch functions?
Address learning; Loop avoidance; Making forward & filter decisions
Redundant switching topologies increase reliability, but what three problems can these topologies cause?
Broadcast Storm; Multiple Frame Copies; MAC Address Table Instability
What switching protocol prevents network switching loops?
Spanning Tree Protocol "STP"
With security concerns being paramount, what should you configure first in a CISCO device?
A password for user & privileged mode
Being able identify the CISCO device is important, so after you configure passwords, you should now name the device using what command?
Router(config)# hostname Hickam
To make global changes to your router's configuration, what command must be entered from the privileged mode prompt?
What switch command would be necessary to allow remote management through an application such as telenet?
Setting the IP info (int vlan 1 - IP address & default gateway)
What are the LAN switch mode/types and how much of the received from do they check before forwarding?
Cut through > Reads the destination MAC & immediately forwards; Fragment Free > Reads into the data section to ensure fragmentation did not occur; Store & Forward > Runs on complete CRC on every frame
What is the term that describes: When all ports on a switch have transitioned to either the forwarding or blocking modes/states?
What kind of firewall is Sidewinder?
A Proxy Firewall - that uses a combination of type enforcement, proxies, servers, and access control rules to control traffic, and provides services to network users, and hides protected address space.
When configuring Sidewinder, why is Secure Shell preferred over telnet?
Secure Shell encrypts the username & password of a package, telnet does not because it transmits in clear text.
What protocol is designed to enable network administrators to manage performance, solve problems and plan for growth?
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) enables
What protocol allows managed devices to collect and store information and forward the data to Network Management Systems?
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) allows
What standard specification enables network monitors and console systems to exchange network monitoring data?
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
You find evidence that an intruder has accessed your router via telent what should you do to prevent future access, while not impeding traffic through your busy network?
Create or modify your access-list
What type of access list would be best to implement if a worker needed to be denied access into the accounting LAN or if you needed to deny entire TCP or UDP protocol like all ICMP traffic?
IP extended access list
What does CITS use as its standard trouble ticketing software?
Remedy (Ticketing Software)
What technology does HP Openview use to ease configuration and display the network in a grphical manner?
Graphic User Interface "GUI"
HP Openview addresses which specific levels of FCAPS?
Fault Management; Configuration; Performance
What command would be the best test to check if a computer can send and receive data?
Which command would you use from a command prompt to view the MAC address of a computer?
IP Config /all
What program running within a Windows domain controller will assign network devices dynamic IP addresses?
What type of devices are commonly configured to be DHCP clients?
Windows clients and servers who don't require static addresses
What allows you to issue more IP addresses than you have available in your subnet?
For your DHCP server to be valid in your network, the server must be ________ by the active directory service.
What DHCP configuration option allows to always get the same dynamic IP address
The range of allowed DHCP addresses on a server can distribute is otherwise refered to as a DHCP ________.
What are the two primary goals of network management systems?
Provide reliable consistent service; Reduce cost
The CORE layer of the CITS model designed to provide a ________.
High Speed Switching back bone
Using class-full ideology and given IP address 172.20.101.67 and using which part is network and which part is host?
Class B) 128-191 N,N,H,H
Using class-full ideology and given IP address 184.108.40.206 and using which part is network and which part is host?
Class A) 1-127 N,N,N,H
Using class-full ideology and given IP address 220.127.116.11 and using which part is network and which part is host?
Class C) 192-223 N,N,N,H
How many subnets are possible with a Class C address which a subnet mask 255.255.255.252
62, borrowing 6 bits
How many hosts are possible with a Class C address with a subnet mask 255.255.255.252?
2² = 4-2 = 2 -or- 8-6 bits = 2
How many subnets are possible with a Class B address with a subnet mask 255.255.248.0?
2⁵=32-2 = 30
How many hosts are possible with a Class B address with a subnet mask 255.255.255.255?
What is the class of the following IP addresses? 18.104.22.168; 22.214.171.124; 126.96.36.199
Class B; Class C; Class A
Given IP address 188.8.131.52 and the subnet mask 255.255.255.224, what is the subnet?
N,N,H,H; 184.108.40.206; 43 falls between 32-64
Given IP address 220.127.116.11 and the subnet mask 255.255.248.0, what is the subnet address?
Given IP address 18.104.22.168 and the subnet mask 255.252.0.0, what is the subnet address?
What services do local communications systems commonly include?
SIPRNET, NIPR, telephone networks, LANs, email, Video telecon
What does TELNET allow a user to do?
Allows a user on a remote client machine, called telnet client, to access the resources of another machine, the TELNET services.
What is the name of the contention media that allow all hosts on a network to share the same bandwidth?
What cable would you use to connect a switch to a switch?
The ______Layer uses switching to control user and workgroup access to internet work resources.
If a router boots up with no startup configuration in NVRAM, what mode does the router enter?
What can be used to display a security notice to people logging into your Cisco device?
MOTD (Message of the Day) banner
What command would set your device's encrypted password to J3^^y, and what mode does this password protect?
Router# enable secret J3^^y; Privileged/enable mode
When showing an interface, is it possible for the line to be down and the protocol to be up?
No, the condition is not possible
How does spanning tree protocol keep track of switches?
What are the three VLAN trunking protocol (VTP) modes?
Client; Transparent; Server
Where is trunking enabled (command: switchport mode trunk) when setting up inter-VLAN routing?
Trunking that connects to the port of Layer 2 switch (Client)
What are the three ways to gain management access to a router?
Console; Telnet; Auxiliary Port
In order, what are the four STP port states?
Blocking, listening, learning, forwarding
What digital service is designed to run over existing phone lines?
ISDN "Integrated Services Digital Network"
What command would you use to set a router interface to the clock rate of 64Kbps?
Clock rate 64000
When developing an access list, how should you order your entries?
Place most specific test entries @ the beginning & broad test entries toward the end.
What is IP spoofing?
When hackers mask thier IP address, using a legit address from your network
What management software enables automation and management of internal and external service and support processes?
Remedy (Management; Service and Support Processes)
How does HPOV test connectivity?
PING, Status Poll, SNMP Walk, Trace Route, Poll Node & Capacity Poll
What tool helps diagnose network problems by allowing you to track the number of hops necessary for a packet to get to its destination?
What defines a collection of one or more domains that share a common schema and global catalog?
Why do we define sites in active directory?
To control replication traffic, make authentication tasker, locate the nearest server providing directory-enabled services.
What do you consult before installing software on hardware?
Hardware compatibility list
What can be used to stipulate how long users can use a computer after they log on?
Initial agreement to service agreement
What ensures every active duty and reserve base has an infrastructure to link future voice, data, video, imagery, and sensory systems via high capacity transport media?
Information Transport System (ITS)
When configuring a Cisco device, what are 3 different type of passwords used to control access?
Enable Secret Password, Console Password & Virtual terminal password
When initially configuring a router, what cable would you choose to connect a switch or router from your computer's serial port?
Roll Over Cable
How can you access a switch for configuration?
Console Port & Telnet
Frame Relay, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), High-Level Data-Link Control (HDLC) are what kind of protocols?
WAN - Configured on a serial port
What are the 4 SNMP communication commands?
Read, write, trap & transversal operations
What SNMP communication reports managed device events to a Network Management System (NMS)?
What security device prevents unauthorized users from gaining network access or from monitoring data transfers?
What server application resolves name to IP addresses?