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As adults age, they show the greatest declines in _______ intelligence and in the memory capacities needed to _______ recently presented information.

fluid; recall

Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) ________ psychologist.

developmental

Infants' tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their:

memory capacities.

The most immediate and direct function of the rooting reflex is the facilitation of

food consumption

Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are suddenly judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a:

concept of conservation.

After Nadia learned that penguins can't fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of:

accommodation.

During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a:

sense of object permanence.

Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of:

insecure attachment.

Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ________ in life and adult independence begins ________ in life.

earlier; later

The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by:

Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to:

reason abstractly.

According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to:

he inability to perceive things from another person's point of view.

Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of:

conservation.

When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly in Piaget's ________ stage.

sensorimotor

Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

zygote

fertilized egg

tetaogen

agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development

Prenatal developement stages

1)the embryo grows and develops rapidly at 40 days
2) five days later the inch long embryp's proportions have begun to change
3)by the end of the second month when the fetal period begins, facial features, hands, and feet have formed.
4) as the fetus enters the fourth month, it 3 ounces could fit in the palm of your hand

Paget's theory

piaget believes that children construct their understandings from interactions witht he world. he developed a systems of stages in which children grow up in.

Sensorimotor

Experiencing the world though senses and actions.
-object permanence
-stranger anxiety
-birth - 2 years

preoperational

representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning
-pretend play
-egocentrism
- 2- 6 or 7 years

concrete operational

thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
-conservation
-mathematical transformations
-7-11 years

formal operational

abstract reasoning
-abstract logic
-potential for mature moral reasoning

schemas

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

assimilation

interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas

accommodation

adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

conservation

the principle that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes int eh forms of objects

egocentrism

in the pre-operational stage. It is the child's inability to grasp someone else's point of view

authoritarian

parents impose rules and expect obedience

permissive

parents let the kids get what they want have few demands and rarely punish

authoritative

parents are both demanding and responsive. they exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also explain why and are willing to compromise

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

puberty

the period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

primary sex characteristics

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make reproduction possible

secondary sex characteristics

non reproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

crystalized intelligence

one's accumulated acknowledge and verbal skills; tends fo increase with age

fluid intelligence

one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

preconvential morality

before age 9, most children's morality focuses on self interest: they obey rules either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.

conventional morality

by early adolecence, morality usually evolves to a more conventional level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules

postconvetional morality

those who develop the abstract reasoning of formal operation thought may reach a third level of morality, affirming people's agree-upon rights or following self defined, basic ethical priciples

bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions on our experience and expectations

subliminal stimuli

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

absolute threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

difference threshold

the minimu difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. we experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference

webers law

the principle that, to be percieve as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage ( rather than a constant amount)

sensory adaptation diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence

wavelength

the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

binocular cues

depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend ont eh use of two eyes

monocular cues

depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change

relative size

a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the smaller retinal image is farther away

relative motion

the change in position of one object compared to the position of another

convergence

the occurrence of two or more things coming together

interpostion

When one object partically blocks your view of another, you perceive the partically blocked object as being farther away

perceptual state

in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

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