The amount of blood pumped from one ventricle per minutes
Carry blood away from the heart
Smaller branches of arteries
Carry blood towards the heart
Smaller branches of veins
The arteries and veins entering and leaving the heart. (Have a relatively large diameter)
The heart's anatomy ensures ____ of blood through both the heart and blood vessels
The heart develops ___ through alternate cycles of heart wall contractions and relaxation.
Consists of the chambers on the right side of the heart (right atrium and right ventricle)
Convey poorly oxygenated blood to the lungs to eliminate carbon dioxide and to replenish oxygen.
Convey blood containing relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide and high amounts of oxygen from the lungs to the left side of the heart for pumping to the systemic circulation.
Consists of the chambers on the left side of the heart (left atrium and left ventricle), and all the other named blood vessels that carry blood to all the peripheral organs and tissues of the body.
Largest systemic artery in the body.
The body's smallest vessels, where gas exchange occurs in tissues.
Superior or infererior vena cava
Most veins merge into ___, both of which drain blood into the right atrium.
The posteriosuperior surface of the heart, formed primarily by the left atrium.
The inferior, conical end of the heart. Projects slightly anteroinferiorly toward the left side of the body.
A fibrous sac and double-layered serous lining.
Outer portion of the pericardium. This layer is attached to both the diaphragm and the base of the great vessels.
Inner portion of the pericardium. A thin, double-layered membrane.
The layer of the serous pericardium that lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium.
Inner lay of the serous pericardium. Fused to the outer surface of the heart.
Another term for the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
Inflammation or bleeding into the pericardial cavity can lead to ___.
The thin potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium.
Peripheral pulse stopping whenever the person breathes in deeply (lungs putting pressure on the heart, and it can't pump)
Jugular vein distention
Blood starts going backward and gets pushed out into the jugular vein (I think)
A way to diagnose pericarditis (and to discriminate it from a myocardial infarction is to listen for a ___, which is a crackling or scraping sound heard within a stethoscope that is caused by the movement of the inflamed pericardial layers against each other.
Outermost heart layer, and is also known as the visceral layer of the serous pericardium. As we age, fat is deposited here.
The middle layer of the heart wall and is composed of cardiac muscle tissue.
Myocardial infarctions (MIs)
Internal surface of the heart and the external surfaces of the heart valves are covered by ___.
The inner lining of the blood vessels. Contiguous with the endocardium of the heart.
A wrinkled, flap-like extension that's the anterior part of each atrium.
A large artery at the basal surface of the heart. Carries blood from the right ventricle into the pulmonary circuit.
A large artery at the basal surface of the heart. Conducts blood from the left ventricle into the systemic circuit.
Located between the atria and the ventricles, and is formed from dense irregular connective tissue. Provides electrical insulation between atria and ventricles.
Drains blood from the heart wall
Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus
The three ways blood gets to the right atrium.
Forms a thin wall between the left and right atria.
An oval depression in the interatrial septum.
A foramen in the fetal heart that shunted blood from the right atrium to the left atrium.
Right atrioventricular (AV) valve
Separates the right atrium from the right ventricle
Another term for the right atrioventricular valve
Forms a thick wall between the right and left ventricles
Large, smooth, irregular muscular ridges on the internal wall surfaces of each ventricle
Three cone-shaped muscular projections in the right ventricle, which anchor thin strands of collagen fiber called chordae tendinae
Thin strands of collagen fibers that attach to the lower surface of cusps of the right AV valve.
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Marks the end of the right ventricle and the entrance into the pulmonary trunk.
Left atrioventricular (AV) valve
Separates the left atrium from the left ventricle
Another term for the left AV valve, or mitral valve.
Another term for the left AV valve, or bicuspid valve.
Aortic semilunar valve
At the superior end of the ventricular cavity. Marks the end of the left ventricle and the entrance to the aorta.
Occurs when one or more of the cardiac valves leaks because the valve leaflets do not close tightly enough.
Scarring of the valve leaflets so that they become rigid or partially fused and cannot open completely.
Rheumatic heart disease
May follow a streptococcal infection of the throat. Results when antibodies produced to kill the bacteria cross-react with the body's own connective tissue, thereby initiating an autoimmune disease.
Significantly scarred and narrow valves must be surgically ___ or ____.
Left and right coronary arteries
Travel in the atrioventricular groove between the atria and ventricles to supply the heart wall. These arteries are the only branches of the ascending aorta.
Characterized by inadequate supply of oxygen and blood to a part of the body.
Can be painless or agonizing.
Silent myocardial ischemia
Painless kind of myocardial ischemia
Agonizing kind of myocardial ischemia
Collect deoxygenated blood and wastes from the myocardial capillaries
A large vein that lies in the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular groove. Blood from the cardiac veins drain into it.
Contraction of a heart chamber
Relaxation phase of a heart chamber
An abnormally increased heart rate, shortens diastole and reduces blood flow to the ventricular myocardium
Abnormally low blood pressure, can also reduce the ability of blood to flow through the ventricular myocardium.
Means that the heart itself (not external nerves) is responsible for initiating the heartbeat.
Another word for autorhythmicity
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Initiates the heartbeat. Located in the posterior wall fo the right atrium, adjacent to the entrance of the superior vena cava. Initiates impulses 70-80 times per minute.
Atrioventricular (AV) node
Located in the floor of the right atrium between the right AV valve and the coronary sinus. Slows conduction of the impulse as it travels from the atria to the ventricles, providing a delay between activation and contraction of the upper and lower heart chambers.
Atrioventricular (AV) bundle
This bundle of conducting muscles fibers extends into the interventricular septum and then divides into one right bundle branch and two left bundle branches.
Bundle of His
Another term for the AV bundle
Impulses conduct from the Bundle of His to these fibers. They begin with the apex of the heart and extend through the walls of the ventricles.
ECG or EKG. Monitors electrical activity of the conducting system of the heart.
The image the electrocardiographs make.
Innervation of the heart consisting of both sympathetic and parasympathetic components
Carried out by nerve fibers from the T1-T5 segments of the spinal cord. Increases the rate and force of heart contractions.
Comes from the medulla oblongata via the left and right vagus nerves (CN X). Decreases heart rate, but generally tends to have no effect on the force of contractions.
Fainting from a lack of blood flow to the brain, as a result of restricting the vessels, and stimulating the vagus nerve to decrease heart rate. (Result of the fainting game - don't let kids play it.)
An atypically slow heartbeat of less than 50 bpm.
A beneficial adaptation resulting from a muscular heart, healthy circulatory system, and excellent lung capacity.
The flap of tissue pushed to the left when blood travels through the fetal foramen ovale.
Patent foramen ovale
When the fossa ovalis fails to close properly
Perforated fossa ovalis
Another term for patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defect
Another term for patent foramen ovale or perforated fossa ovalis
Any abnormality in the rate, regularity, or sequence of the cardiac cycle.
Another term for cardiac arrhythmia
Occurs when the atria attempt to beat at a rate of 200 to 400 times per minute. Bombards the AV node with muscle impulses
Differs from the atrial flutter in that the muscle impulses are significantly more chaotic, leading to an irregular heart rate.
Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
Often result from stress, stimulants such as caffeine, or sleep deprivation. They occur either singly or in rapid bursts due to abnormal impulses initiated within the AV node or the ventricular conduction system.
A rapid repetitious movement of the ventricular muscle that replaces muscle contraction. A life-threatening condition caused by scattering impulses originating at different times and places throughout the entire myocardia. Blood doesn't pump, and circulation stops.
When the blood doesn't pump and the circulation stops.
Aortic semilunar valve
Best heard in the second intercostal space to the right of the sternum.
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Best heard in the second intercostal space to the left of the sternum
Right AV valve
Best heard by the right side of the inferior end of the sternum
Left AV valve
Best heard near the apex of the heart (at the level of the fifth intercostal space, about nine centimeters from the midline of the sternum.
Abnormal heart sounds. Usually the result of turbulence of the blood as it passes through the heart, and may be caused by valvular leakage, decreased valve flexibility, or a misshapen valve.