Ch. 7 pre- ap u.s. history

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Admiralty Courts

Used to try offenders for violating various Navigation Acts passed by the crown after the French and Indian War. Colonists argued that the courts encroached on their rights as Englishmen since they lacked juries and placed the burden of proof [on] the accused.

Committees of Correspondence

(1772 and after) local committees established across Massachusetts and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets.

Daughters of Liberty

Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and Enforcing non-importation agreements.

Declaratory Act

(1766) Passed alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act, it reaffirmed Parliament's unqualified sovereignty over North American colonies.

1st Continental Congress

(1774) Convention of delegates from 12 of 13 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. To craft a response to the Intolerable Acts. Delegates established Association, which called for a complete boycott of British goods.

"Intolerable Acts"

(1774) series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing the ports of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Massachusetts colonial charter, and expanding the Quartering act to allow for the lodging of soldiers in private homes. In response colonists convened the 1st Continental Congress and called for a complete boycott of British goods.

The Battles of Lexington and Concord

(April 1775) 1st battles of the Revolutionary War, fought outside of Boston. The colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions, forcing the British to retreat to Boston.

Mercantilism

Economic theory that closely linked a nation's political military power to it's bullion reserves. Generally favored protectionism and colonial acquisition as means to increase exports.

Nonimportation Agreements

(1765 and after) Boycotts against British goods adopted in response to the Stamp Act and later, The Townshend and Intolerable Acts. The agreements were the most effective form of protest against British policies in the colonies.

Quartering Act

(1765) Act which required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. Many colonists resented the act, which they perceived as an encroachment on their rights.

Quebec Act

(1774) Allowed the French residents of quebec to retain their traditional, political, and religious institutions, and extended the boundaries southward to the Ohio River. Mistakenly perceived by the colonists to be part of Parliament's response to the Boston Tea Party.

Radical Whigs

18th century British political commentators who agitated against political corruption and emphasized on the threat to liberty posed by arbitrary power. Their writings shaped American political thought and made colonists especially alert to encroachments on their rights.

Republicanism

A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.

Sons of Liberty

Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and Enforcing non-importation agreements.

Stamp Act Congress

(1765) Assembly of delegates from 9 colonies who met in New York City to draft a petition for the repeal of the Stamp Act. Helped ease sectional suspicions and promote intercolonial unity.

Stamp Tax

(1765) widely unpopular tax on an array of paper goods, repeals in 1766 after mass protests erupted across the colonies. Colonists developed the principle of "no taxation without representation" which questioned Parliament's authority over the colonies and laid the foundation for the future revolutionary claims.

Sugar Act

(1764) Duty on imported sugar from the West Indies. It was the 1st tax levied on the colonists by the crown and was lowered substantially in response to the widespread protests.

Townshend Acts

(1767) External, or indirect, levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea, the proceeds of which were used to pay colonial governors, who had previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies. Sparked another round of protests in the colonies.

Valley Forge

(1777-1778) Encampment of George Washington's poorly equipped army spent a wretched, freezing winter. Hundreds of men died and more than a thousand deserted. The plight of the starving, shivering soldiers reflected the main weakness of the American army--a lack of stable supplies and munitions.

The Association

(1774) Non-importation agreement crafted during the 1st Continental Congress calling for the complete boycott of British goods.

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