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________ is not part of the hydrologic cycle.

Calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and groundwater

Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?

The drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels.

A natural, meandering, river channel is modified into a more or less straight and smooth, canal-like channel. Which of the following statements is correct?

The natural channel had a lower gradient and higher friction than the straight channel.

How does urbanization (paving, etc.) affect runoff and infiltration in a small, previously forested, drainage basin?

infiltration decreases; runoff increases

Which of the following must result in a lower base level for rivers and streams?

sea level falls; land rises

________ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.

Silt and clay-sized detrital grains

________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.

Capacity

At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ________.

distributaries

In the absence of cutoff, how does a river meander loop behave over time?

The gradient is lowered as the channel lengthens and migrates toward the cut or outer bank of the loop.

A ________ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upward.

radial

A ________ stream pattern develops on lands underlain by tilted or folded, alternating hard and soft, sedimentary strata.

trellis

________ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

An oxbow

________ are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.

Rapids and lots of whitewater

Many larger rivers in the Colorado Plateau region meander in deep, narrow canyons and have no floodplains. How could this happen?

Original, old age streams downcut as the land gradually rose.

Which of the following is the only correct response concerning the location and causes of the extraordinarily severe, 1993, flooding on the Mississippi River and tributaries?

upper basin; very heavy, sustained rainfall in the late spring and early summer

________ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream.

Suspended load

Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?

on the outer parts of the meander loops or bends

Which one of the following would cause stream rejuvenation?

the land is uplifted

In a ________ drainage pattern that is generally developed in areas underlain by tilted or folded strata, tributary streams flow along outcrop areas of the softer strata.

trellis

A stream begins at an elevation of 200 meters and flows a distance of 400 kilometers to the ocean? What is the average gradient?

0.5 m/km

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