Chapter 16: The Endocrine System

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Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty

Ovaries

Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain

Pituitary Gland

Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics

Testies

Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids

Adrenal Glands

Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ

Hypothalamus

Growth hormone- releasing hormone (GHRH)

Bones and Muscles (far left)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Testes or Ovaries (middle)

Prolactin- releasing hormone (PRH)

Mammary Glands (2nd from left)

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

Adrenal Cortex (far right)

Thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH)

Thyroid (2nd from right)

The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands

hypophysis

the gland that controls the fight or flight reaction

adrenal medulla

produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body

pancreas

produces a hormone that controls blood levels of clacium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue

parathyroid

produces the bodys major metabolic hormones

thyroid

the antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood clacium level are calcitonin parathyroid hormone

true

the hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin

false

both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system

true

ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones

true

LH is also reffered to as a gonadotropin

true

with age chronic stress increases blood levels of cortisol and appears to contribute to memory deterioration

true

oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions

true

type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production

true

the prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis

true

the beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin

true

most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin

false

atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium

true

although glucagon is a small polypeptide it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects

true

the thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individual

true

many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmitters

true

all of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis: ACTH, FSH, and LH.

true

Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine

true

the endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is parathyroid

false

Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones

false

glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an individual is suffering from severe stress

false

direct gene activitation involves a second messenger system

false

all edenohypophyseal hormones except GH affect their target cells via a cyclic AMP second messenger

true

gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of

cortisol

normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the

thymus gland

nearly all of the protein or amino acid based hormones exert their effects through intracellular

second messengers

which of the following is not a category of the endocrine gland stimulus

enzyme

chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called

hormones

the hypothalamic hypophyseal tract

is partly contained within the infundibulum

Which of the following is a sign of diabetes mellitus

polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia (all of these)

Oxytocin__

release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

ADH____

is inhibited by alcohol

thyroid hormone exerts its influence by

entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei

gonadocorticoids____

Production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty

Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as

down-regulation

which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus

direct control of the nervous system

the ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

the neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the putuitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

steroid hormones exert their action by

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

the second messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by

binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because

during protein kinase activation enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes

cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. in order for cells to respond it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. this is possible because

G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers

thyroid hormone ( a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to

steroid hormones because both diffuse easily into target cells

when it becomes necessary to enlist the fight or flight response a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is

epinephrine

one of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. which of the following describes this mechanism

humoral stimulation

the major targets of growth hormone are

bones and skeletal muscles

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