Body Organization and Terminology

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FLASHCARD DECK FOR LECTURE EXAM ONE

Anatomy

The study of body structure/morphology is known as _____

Physiology

The study of the functions of the body is called _____

Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Developmental Anatomy, and Comparative Anatomy

List the four types of anatomy study

False

True or False: Gross anatomy is the study of the interior of the body.

Gross Anatomy

aka macroscopic anatomy, can be examined with the naked eye.

Systemic Anatomy, Regional Anatomy and Surface

List the three areas of study in Gross Anatomy

B. systemic anatomy

The study of all the parts that make up the systems in a body is referred to as: a. microscopic anatomy, b. systemic anatomy, c. cytology

True

True or False: Regional anatomy is the study of specific areas of the body.

Surface

aka topographic, this type of anatomy study involves palpation.

Palpation

The technique used to study structures beneath the skin is known as _____

Cytology

The study of cells

Histology

The study of tissues

Developmental Anatomy

the study of the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span, from conception to death is known as _____

Embryology

This is a specific branch of developmental Anatomy that is concerned with the period through conception to birth (usually including the first year of life)

True

True or False: Embryology is concerned with both the aging and repair of cells

False

True or False: Comparative anatomy compares the anatomy of one human to another.

Pathological / Pharmacological

_____is the study of disease processes while _____ is the study of drug actions in the body.

Dissection, Microscopy, Radiography, Tomography, Ultrasound, Scintigraphy, and MRI

List 7 methods of investigation used in physiology.

Radiography uses 2D images while Tomography combines x-rays to create a 3D image.

What is the difference between radiography and tomography?

b. Scintigraphy

Which of the following methods of investigation uses a radioactive isotope directly injected into a specific area? A. CAT Scan, B. Scintigraphy, C. MRI

a. MRI

Which method of investigation is uses magnets and assists in viewing areas of the body where changes in density are subtle? A. MRI, B. Scintigraphy, C. Tomography

Ultrasound

This method of investigation uses sound waves to create an image.

Cell

The basic unit of structure and function in a living organism is known as a _____

Atom->Molecule->Organelle->Cell->Tissue->Organ->Organ System->Organism

From smallest to largest, list the levels of organization in a body.

Organelle

Little organs within the cell are known as _____

Epithelial, nervous, muscular, connective

List the four types of tissues.

Tissue

An aggregation of similar cells joined together to perform a specific function is called _____

Organ

A structure consisting of two or more tissues that performs a specific function is known as _____

System

A group of organs that function together is called _____

Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Urinary, Digestive and Reproductive

List the 11 systems within the body.

Homeostasis

The maintenance of a stable, constant internal environment

Negative Feedback

The homeostatic mechanism by which the body returns to its original state is called _____

Positive Feedback

The homeostatic mechanism by which the body advances to a new state is called _____

True

True or False: Negative Feedback is the most common of the two homeostatic mechanisms.

True

True or False: Cancer is an example of positive feedback.

Standing erect, facing forward, palms and toes pointed forward

Describe anatomical position.

Sagittal Plane

Separates the body into the right and left halves

Mid-Sagittal Plane

Separates the body into right and left halves along the midline.

Coronal (aka Frontal

Separates the body into front and back halves.

Transverse (aka horizontal)

Separates the body into top and bottom sections.

Cross-Section

A cut perpendicular to the long axis of a structure is called a(n) _____

Longitudinal Section

A cut parallel to the long axis of a structure is called a(n)_____

Oblique Section

A cut at an oblique angle to the long axis of a structure is called a(n)_____

Sagittal Plane, Coronal, Transverse and Cross-Section

List the 4 Planes of Reference.

Superior/Inferior, Ventral/Dorsal, Medial/Lateral/Median, Proximal/Distal, Superficial/Deep

List the 5 directional reference pairs.

Cranial/Caudal or Cephalad/Caudad

Superior/Inferior is also known as _____

Anterior/Posterior

Dorsal/Ventral is also known as ______

Profundus

Deep is also known as _____

Superior/Inferior

Directional reference meaning above, towards the head/below, towards the feet.

Ventral/Dorsal

Directional reference meaning toward the front surface of the body/toward the back surface of the body.

Medial/Lateral/Median

Directional reference meaning towards the midline of the body/away from the midline of the body/at the midline of the body

Proximal/Distal

Directional reference meaning closer to the point of attachment/further from the point of attachment.

Superficial/Deep

Directional reference meaning closer to the surface, away from the core/closer to the core, away from the surface.

Ventral cavity, Dorsal cavity and Facial cavity

List the 3 major cavities of the body.

The Ventral Cavity contains the thoracic cavity within which are housed the pleural cavities (associated with the lungs) and the mediastinum which contains the pericardial cavity (associated with the heart). Below the thoracic cavity and separated by the diaphragm is the abdominopelvic cavity. Subdivided into two sections the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.

Describe the Ventral Cavity

The Dorsal cavity contains the cranial cavity (associated with the brain) and the vertebral cavity (associated with the spinal cord)

Describe the Dorsal Cavity

The facial cavity contains the oral or buccal cavity, the nasal cavity, the orbital cavity (eye sockets), and the middle ear (or tympanic or otic) cavity.

Describe the facial cavities.

Mucous and Serous

What are the two types of body membranes?

Mucous membrane

The membrane generally found lining the cavities of the body which contain an entrance or exit.

Serous Membrane

The membrane generally found lining cavities of the body that are entirely contained.

False

True or False: the oral cavity is lined by a serous membrane.

True

True or False: the pleural cavity is lined by a serous membrane.

Pleural, Pericardium and Peritoneum

What 3 cavities are lined by serous membranes?

Right Hypochondriac, Epigastric, Left Hypochondriac, Right Lumbar, Umbilical, Left Lumbar, Right Iliac, Hypogastric, Left Iliac

List from right to left, top to bottom the nine regions of the body.

A horizontal line is drawn at the bottom of the ribs and another at the top of the pelvis, two vertical lines are drawn through the mammary region

Describe how the nine region method is sectioned off on the body.

The Patient's

From whose perspective do you always label right and left?

Inguinal

Where the thigh connects to the trunk is called the _____

Pubic

The genital region is also known as the _____

Perineal

The region around the anus.

Gluteal

The ass is known as the _____

Sacral

The triangular area at the end of the vertebral column is called the _____

Head, Neck, Trunk, Upper Extremities, Lower Extremities

List the 5 regions of the body

Cranial and Facial

2 areas contained within the region of the head are the

Orbital, nasal, oral, buccal, mental, auricular

6 areas contained within the facial region

The trunk is sectioned into two parts, the thorax and the abdominopelvic region. The thorax contains the mammary, sternal, axillary, costal and vertebral, the abdominopelvic region contains the areas within the 9 region method (r and l hypochondriac, Epigastric, r and l lumbar, umbilical, r and l iliac and hypogastric)

Describe the parts of the trunk.

Shoulder/acromial, omos or deltoid, arm/brachium, elbow/cubital region, forearm/antebrachium, wrist/carpus, hand/manus (including the palm and dorsum)

List the common and anatomical terms for the upper extremities.

Thigh/Femoral region, Knee/patellar, back of the knee/popliteal, leg/cura (includes shin and calf), ankle/tarsus, foot/pes (includes dorsum and sole-plantar surface.

List the common and anatomical terms for the lower extremities

Costal

The ribs are also known as the _______

Axillary

The armpits are also known as the ______

Mental

The chin is also known as the _____

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