John Quincy Adams

6th U.S. President of the US; member of the Democratic-Republican party. He was accused by Andrew Jackson of winning the presidential election of 1824 through a "corrupt bargain" with Henry Clay. Clay supported this man's candidacy in the House of Representatives. Later, this man lost the 1828 presidential election to Andrew Jackson after a campaign that was filed with "mud-slinging".

Andrew Jackson

7th President of the United States. As president he supported the Indian Removal Act, opposed the national bank, objected to the right of individual states to nullify federal laws, and greatly increased presidential powers; at one point, he ignored the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling about the rights of the Cherokee to remain in their homelands. He is considered to be the founder of the modern Democratic party and a brilliant politician who used the media to his advantage.

Jacksonian Democracy

The idea of spreading political power and voting rights to the "common people" and ensuring majority rule.

Election of 1824

Because no candidate won a majority of electoral votes, the House of Representatives had to decide among 3 men: John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, and William Crawford. The 4th candidate, Henry Clay, had finished in last place and dropped out. Clay urged his supporters in the House to vote for Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain" when Clay became Secretary of State.

Election of 1828

This election involved a bitter campaign (lots of "mud-slinging") between Andrew Jackson and President John Quincy Adams. Jackson was opposed to the Henry Clay's American System (high tariffs, investments in transportation, and the national bank), which was supported by Adams. Jackson won by a landslide because his policies and his image as a war hero appealed to the common man. Also, many voting restrictions were now lifted. Previously, only white male property owners could vote. The expansion of voting rights to the "common people" provided Jackson with a new group of political supporters.

spoils system

The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Andrew Jackson was the first president to use this system on a wide scale.

Cherokee Nation

A distinct nation of Native Americans that held its own territory; inside this nation, the laws of Georgia had no force.

Trail of Tears

Because of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the Cherokee were forced to leave their land in the southeastern U.S. They traveled almost 900 miles from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Indian Removal Act of 1830

This law gave President Andrew Jackson the power to negotiate land-exchange treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River. Such treaties led to the forced emigration of tens of thousands of Native-Americans to Indian territories west of the Mississippi River.

Major Ridge

Cherokee chief who signed the Treaty of New Echota (1935) with the United States. This Treaty gave away all of the Cherokee lands in Georgia and agreed to the removal of the Cherokees. However, this chief represented only a small percentage of the Cherokee and he was later assassinated by members of the tribe because he signed the Treaty.

John Ross

Cherokee leader who protested the Indian Removal Act and argued that it was illegal for the United States to remove Cherokee from their land; went to Congress, the Supreme Court, and President Jackson to argue for Cherokees' right to stay in Georgia. After attempts to compromise failed, he was forced to march on the Trail of Tears.

Indian Territory

An area into which Native Americans were moved that covers what is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska.

Osceola

Seminole chief who fought wars against the U.S. and President Jackson's army in Florida after passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

General Winfield Scott

U.S. army general who was sent to remove the Native-Americans from Georgia to the Indian Territory. Later, he led American troops to victory in the Mexican-American War.

John C. Calhoun

The vice president of the United States during President Jackson's first term in office; he was from South Carolina and became a leader of Southern sectional interests during the first half of the 19th century. He strongly supported states' rights, nullification, a limited federal government, and slavery. Because of their differences, he was not asked to serve as vice president during Jackson's 2nd term.

Tariff of Abominations

Also called the "Tariff of 1828", it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods during the final days of John Quincy Adams' presidency. In 1828, this Tariff helped lead to Andrew Jackson's election because many Americans were opposed to it. The Tariff protected Northern economic interests but harmed the South because it raised the cost of goods purchased by Southerners from foreign suppliers. Southern states argued that the tariff discriminated against their economic interests and was unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. The Tariff passed because New Englanders favored high tariffs.

nullification

the states' rights doctrine that says a state can refuse to recognize or enforce a federal law if a state believes that law is unconstitutional; Jackson's vice president, John Calhoun (South Carolina), was a key supporter of this doctrine

tariff

a government tax on foreign goods brought into a country

protective tariff

a tax on goods imported from foreign countries that raises the price of imports in order to encourage people to buy goods made domestically

secession

the formal withdrawal of a state from the union; South Carolina threatened this action during the crisis about the Tariff of Abominations

Webster-Hayne Debate

Debate in the U.S. Senate between - Robert J. Hayne of South Carolina and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. Their fight concerned the argument about state rights and federal rights. Hayne believed the south and west should unite against the "northern tyranny." Webster then challenged Hayne to a debate. Hayne accepted, and defended the theory of nullification. In response, Webster spent 2 full afternoons on the Senate floor which he concluded by saying: "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable."

Compromise Tariff of 1833

Proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun to resolve the nullification crisis; this tariff provided that tariffs would be lowered gradually, over a period of 10 years, to 1816 levels. This compromise avoided secession and civil war; it helped prolong the Union for another 30 years.

Nicholas Biddle

A northerner who was the president of the Second Bank of the United States (the national bank); President Jackson believed the bank was corrupt because it favored the wealthy and hurt the common man. After Congress voted to renew the bank's charter in 1832, Jackson vetoed the bill, which forced the bank out of business. The closing of the bank led to an economic crisis that began AFTER Jackson left office.

inflation

increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money

Martin Van Buren

Elected 8th president of the United States in 1836; he became Jackson's vice president after Calhoun resigned. The Panic of 1837 ruined his presidency, and he was voted out of office in 1840. He later supported the Free Soil Party.

Panic of 1837

an economic collapse that occurred as a result of President Andrew Jackson's policies and led to an extended national economic depression during President Martin Van Buren's term in office. During this depression, approximately 90% of factories in the Northeast were closed, which led to homelessness, starvation, and other problems in American cities; farmers were not hurt as much because they grew their own food.

depression

a long-term, severe economic slump characterized by high unemployment, low prices and low levels of trade and investment (e.g., Panic of 1837)

Whig Party

An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats; it stood for protective tariffs, a strong national bank, a stronger Congress (and a weaker president), and federal aid for internal improvements. The growth of this party signaled the end of the "one party" system under Jackson.

William Henry Harrison

American military leader who became the 9th president of the United States; member of the Whig Party. He was the first president to die in office (one month after his inauguration), which created a brief Constitutional crisis. As a general, he led U.S. forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) against Shawnee tribe. Slogan during his campaign for presidency was "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too".

John Tyler

Elected Vice President in 1840 and became the 10th President of the United States when William Henry Harrison died. Although he hated Andrew Jackson and ran as a Whig, President Tyler supported many of the policies that were important to Democrats.

Second Bank of the United States

National bank organized in 1816; it was closely modeled after the First Bank of the United States. The bank held federal tax receipts (money raised from tariffs and taxes) and had the power to regulate the amount of money circulating in the U.S. economy. The Bank proved to be very unpopular among western land speculators and farmers, especially after the Panic of 1819. President Jackson fought against this institution throughout his career, proclaiming it to be an unconstitutional extension of the federal government and a tool used by the rich to corrupt American society.

Pet banks

A term used by Andrew Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used to deposit money in its attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice of depositing money in these state banks continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.

political parties

groups of people who organize to help elect government officials and influence government policies; examples include the Whig Party and the Democratic Party.

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