physical or chemical agents that can cause mutations
Molecules about the same size as DNA nucleotides that insert themselves at a replication fork during DNA synthesis causing a frameshift.
Due to the break of hydrogen bonds between NTP's from UV radiation, T-T can covalently bond if they are adjacent (as can C or U). This distorts the DNA and causes errors in replication, transcription
Chemical mutagen that can cause the deamination of nitrogen bases, allowing adenine to pair with cytosine instead of Thymine
chemicals that lead to DNA mutation associated with cancer
the self-checking capacity of DNA polymerase that is present in all cells
Causes the formation of ions that are highly reactive and can react with nucleotides causing errors in replication, mutation, chromosomal breakage
excision repair in which special enzymes cut the damaged section out of the DNA and polymerase comes back and fills in. This can repair dimers and mismatched base pairs.