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Prep or Dr. Rotella's test

This system is the most taxed

Integumentary System

THE BODY

The integument covers

The Integumentary includes this.

skin, nails, hair, glands, muscles and nerves

the skin =

cutaneous membrane

functions of the skin

protect, maintain body temperature, detect changes in the environment, vitamin D synthesis, Excretion and absorption

2 main parts of the integument

Epidermis & dermis

Epidermis

surface epithelial (superficial and thin layer)

Dermis

deeper connective tissue that has nerves and muscles (thicker layer)

Sub cutaneous ( sub Q) & Hypodermis

not part of the skin

Keratinocytes

90% of epidermal cells

Keratinocytes

4-5 layers thick

Keratinocytes

produce keratin

Keratinocytes

protect skin from heat, microorganisims & chemicals

Keratinocytes

produce lamellar granules that makes the skin water proof

Melanocytes

produce melanin

Langerhans cells

made in red bone marrow and migrate to epidermis

Langerhans cells

immune response

Merkel cells

sensory cells--include tactile disc and neuron = touch

Stratum Granulosum

keratin--losing cell organelles and nuclei

Stratum Granulosum

the transitional layer of living and dead cells

Stratum Corneum

flattened dead cells

Sub Q layer

Deeper part of dermis attaches to

Sub Q

bundles of collagen, coarse elastic fibers, adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, oil and sweat glands. are found in

Deep dermis

has strength and elasticity , extensibility because of collagen and elastic fibers

Melanin

dark color

UV light

stimulates melanin production

Hemoglobin in blood

pink-red color

Carotene

yellow-orange color

genetics and hormones

influence the thickness & where hair is distributed

Hair consists of (2 things)

shaft (part we see) & root (part below)

Hair follicle

surrounds the root

Base of the bulb

includes growing matrix producing cells

Nerves (hair follicle)

hair root plexuses (sensitive to touch)

Muscle (Hair follicle)

Arrector pili (smooth muscle)

andogens are secreted to give us our hair growth

during puberty this occurs

andogens

responsible for baldness

3 type of glands

sebaceous, sudoriferous, Ceruminous

Sebaceous Gland

not found in the palms or soles

Sebaceous Gland (function)

help keep hair from drying out, prevents excessive evaporation of H2O, keeps skin soft, inhibits bacteria growth

Eccrine Gland

starts functioning after birth

Apocrine sweat gland

starts functioning after puberty, stimulated during emothional stress and sexual excitement (cold sweat)

Ceruminous Gland

found in the external auditory canal--combines with sebum to produce earwax

Ceruminous Gland

prevent particles from affecting the ear drum and canal

Nail body

major visible portion

Free edge

part extending past finger or toe

Root

part not visible

Loss of collagen fibers

during aging

during aging

loss of elasticity

loss of immune response

during aging

DURING AGING

decreased melanocyte function

during aging*

Hair thinning occurs

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