a period of European history between the fourteenth and mid seventeenth century - rebirth. Was divided up in places. Produced an incredible amount of art, literature, cultural rebirth overall. Italy was the first to begin with the Renaissance.
started to represent more human forms and emotions - sought to depict subjects in natural poses that reflected human muscles, etc [ex: Da Vinci, Michelangelo, etc]
began teaching humanities - although they were deeply committed to history, other subject were starting to be taught - sought classical works of literature - started writing in the vernacular.
Drew inspiration from classical antiquity - Europeans began to get more involved with the world - elite/wealthy commissioned hundreds of paintings - status of wealth, etc
St. Ignatius of Loyola
1540 - Founded the Society of Jesus - Jesuits completed a education in theology, philosophy, language, history and science - known for being educated; Worked as missionaries to spread religion globally and often worked as counselors to the king - had an enormous amount of political power - were influential, but sometimes seen as a threat to the Pope.
the Jesuits increasingly worked as missionaries in order to spread the Catholic faith all around the world - fueled political and social conflict .
also called Prince Henry/Henrique the Navigator. was the dutch prince of Portugal - worked to spread Christianity and establish colonies in the new world - in 1415, portugeuese forces seized a Moroccan city blow against Islam, enabled Christian vessels to move freely in the Mediterranean/Atlantic [strait of Gibralter]
were the first to establish colonies in the new world - established by Prince Henry the Navigator—explored the East coast of the new world.
was the biggest imperial power; extremely wealthy - King Phillip of Spain - tried to force England back to being Catholics, but didn't work - Netherlands rebelled against Spain and won their independence; fought in the Thirty Years' War, Charles the V [Holy Roman Empire], but also known as Charles I [of Spain] - was part of the Hapsburg family - retired to a monastery Ferdinand/Isabel of Spain - also known as the Catholic Rulers? - began the Spanish Inquisition
in 1478 - original goal was to find all the Jews/Muslims, but developed into finding Protestant heretics - were extremely violent - allowed to monarchs to gain power
Isabel/Ferdinand also sponsored Chrisopher Columbus in 1492
Spain got the West - invaded Mexico and Peru [found silver - was used in the Ming Dynasty] - led to inflation—became the richest country in the new world—practiced a form of absolute monarchy
a Crusade that ended in 1492 in order to expel all the Muslims out of Spain -only Granada [a local kingdom in Spain] remained Muslim. - then the Spanish went out and conquered Granada
wanted to find trading routes to China, but wanted to go West instead of East. Was originally rejected by Isabel/Ferdinand of Spain, but after the Reconquista [ended in 1492] he was allowed to go - explored the W. of the New World.
Phillip II of Spain -archrival to Elizabeth of England - sent the Spanish navy with giant boats to attack, but there was a storm - destroyed the ships [difficult to maneuver] - Elizabeth was Protestant, but this attack failed
the dominant economic philosophy at the time - the idea that the economy will be more prosperous if you export more than you import [can be achieved by having colonies] - emphasizes colonies/self-sufficiencies competition. An assumption that one country could be on top - interesting because the British economy started booming because of their failure at maintain mercantilism
was the only thing ming china would trade for their luxury goods. Spain found silver mines mainly in Peru - used to trade with the ming, inflation went up because there was so much
Gutenberg created the movable type printing press - printed the Bible in the vernacular, found mistakes, corrected them, improved literacy rates, etc.
written by Nicholo Machiavelli - a guide on how to rule a kingdom [work of political philosophy] - about whatever it takes to stay in power - wasn't just for the religious well-being of people, but militaristic, economic - focuses on the education of the prince in all ways - should appear powerful, cultured, mannered
began the Protestant Reformation.. basically with the publication of 95 Theses. Wrote scholarly essays on the relationship between the individual and God and how it should be more personal - criticized the church for being materialistic, corrupt [indulgences - getting out of purgatory] - due to the printing press, news traveled extremely quickly Lutheranism
a series of works published by Martin Luther in 1517 criticizing the workings of the church. Spread extremely quickly due to the printing press.
basically began with the publication of 95 Theses because so many people had Access to the bible and the ideas of Luther appealed to many people [about how it should be more personal] - began Lutheranism
closure of monarchies, the Bible was written in the vernacular, anyone could connect to God, salvation was only achieved through faith [not indulgences or good works] - rejected the Church hierarchy, mainly spread to Germany, Sweden. Belief in 2 sacraments - baptism and communion [said that the transformation of the bread and wine was metaphorical rather than literal - was considered to be radical]—supported secular authorities
was similar to Lutheranism, but believed in predestination [the idea that God has already chosen who is to enter heaven] - the catch was that no one knew who was predestined, so there was an implication that those who acted the holiest were predestined. Began with John Calvin who used Luther's basic ideas and principles. Mainly practiced in France
a branch of Christianity -- began with the Protestant Reformation in 1517 -- Protestant itself divides into 2: Calvinism/Lutheranism. Faced alot of persecution in Europe, especially in Spain during the Spanish Inquisition/basically the reign of Ferdinand and Isabel
a branch of Christianity -- Roman Catholicism -- basically accepts the Pope and believes in salvation through good deeds -- was the dominant religion in Europe for an extremely long time.
[1509-1547]. Wanted a divorce from his wife [Catherine of Aragon -- from Spain] because she didn't have a male heir -- the Pope didn't allow for the annulment of their marriage, partly because of the alliance he had with Spain [Phillip II]. He broke off and established the Church of England [Anglican Church].
also known as the Church of England -- established when Henry VIII broke off from the Catholic church
the Jesuit Order was established by St. Ignatius of Loyola. They were basically priests that were supposed to convince people to convert to Catholicism through education and preaching -- known as brilliant scholars/speakers. They established educational institutions everywhere and were extremely influential
also known as the Catholic Reformation. A desire to clarity the differences between Catholics and Protestants while persuading converts and to develop a sense of community within the church. Found some church in what 95 Theses was saying, tried to make the Catholic church more holy, etc
were made by the Council of Trent -- a decision that stated that people would be convinced to become/remain Catholic if they knew certain parts of the church and sought to reaffirm the idea of good works, the beauty of religious acts, and the priests' role in the community. Got rid of things like indulgences, and promoted charity/good work instead.
Thirty Years' War
[1618-1648] -- involved all nations -- began with the Holy Roman Emperor [Charles V] tried to force his Bohemian subjects into becoming Catholics -- fought in Germany -- left complete economic, political, and social destruction. France won, became more powerful
Peace of Westphalia
was signed in 1648 with the end of the Thirty Years' War. established the boundaries that exist today -- Balance of Power. A new power emerges -- the Netherlands [the Dutch]. they become an independent country -- becomes one of the most powerful maritime countries
believed in divine rulers and the idea that the rulers derived their authority from God and to question them would be questioning God; the king alone could make decisions, but had an extensive bureaucracy that help him govern the empire; no role for peasants OR nobles in public affairs -- was used in France, Spain, Austria [Hapsburg] Prussia, and Russia.
"I am the State" --was also known as the Sun King -- created the palace of Versailles. ruled from [1643-1715] -- ran the state, maintained a huge army, waged war, and promoted economic development, but only for himself and his ministers.
was built by Louis XIV in the 1680s. it was the center of his court, extremely ornate, HUGE. the nobles lived here -- invited by Louis so he could keep them in check. Kept them entertained, which meant it also depleted their money source -- needed new wardrobe for every ball, etc. other countries quickly sought to build their own version of Versailles.
developed in England and the Netherlands -- evolved representative bodies who served as helpers but also had legislative authority -- the king shared power with these representatives [Parliaments] was developed after the English Civil War. There was religious tension between the Anglicans [the court] and the Parliament [Calvinists] -- led to political tension about whether the king could make new taxes without the approval of Parliament -- in1649 King Charles was captured and beheaded -- William of Orange and Mary began to rule
in 1688 when William and Mary were asked to rule. Established once and for all that the Parliament is in charge of England and basically had authority. It was established that the Prime Minister [head of the House of Commons] made decisions.
the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks. Technically, the official fall is 1461 CE.
Kingdom of Kongo
established diplomatic/commercial relations with Portugal in 1482; converted to Christianity in the 16th century. Traded with the Portuguese for textiles, weapons, and advisors for gold, silver, ivory, and slaves -- deteriorated relations led to war in 1665 --> decapitation of the Kongo King.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
mainly in kongo/portugal -- slave trade undermined the authority of the kings of Kongo.
Ashante and Dahomey
Ashante became a slave trading tribe that rose to become an empire. Dahomey gained access to firearms - began a brutal political regime that maintained slave trading. The royal family became eliminated and was just unified under the army basically—had massive amounts of human sacrifice, and slave trade continuously increased.
with 450 men, he conquered the Aztec empire [1519-1521]-- Tribal resentment against the Mexica helped Cortes along with disease [mainly smallpox]
led a small group of men -- overthrew the Incas [1532-1533]. There were internal problems/smallpox that helped -- by 1540, the Spanish controlled all of the former Inca empire.
an exchange of animals, culture, ideas, and diseases between the "old" world and the New world. destroyed the Americas because they had no immunity to disease
ruler of the Aztecs during the Spanish conquest. was captured and imprisoned by Cortes
the mine in Peru that had tons of silver in it. When the Spanish invaded, they basically depleted the mine of silver to trade with China [the Ming]
the Europeans brought it over [was made possible through the columbian exchange] -- decimated the populations of the Americas because they had no immunity to it, along with South America, Australia, etc
Treaty of Tordesillas
established in 1494. The Portuguese had sailed to American first, then Spain, so the Pope drew a line down the middle, gave the East [including Africa] to Portugal and the W. to Spain, ultimately got the better end -- SILVER!å
land grants to the Spanish settlers who had total control over the local people -- began in the Spanish caribbean with Columbus. was abused thoroughly and replaced by the "repartimiento" system, which was then replaced by free laborer.s
large private estates that were the basis of Spanish American production -- produced food for locals
mandatory public service in the Inca -- was an effective way of tribute. However, was reciprocal and the incas provided the people with public works, etc, but when the Spanish invaded, it became a form of slavery.