Prevents cross-linking of peptides and synthesis of peptide strnd through autolysin activators. Does not allow enzyme to cross link peptide strands.
Methicillin, Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin
Inhibits linkages of peptidoglycan constituents.
Prevents incorporation of N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) peptide subunits into the peptidoglycan matrix (structural compenent of gram + cell wall)
Large hydrophobic molecule that forms hydrogen bonds with terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine moieties of the NAM/NAG-peptides
Binding to D-Ala-D-Ala prevents incorporation of the NAM/NAG-peptide subunits into the peptidoglycan matrix
Competitively inhibits D-alanine ligase enzyme so cannot syntheses from L to D-alanine
Don't have crosslinking if not have D-alanine at the end
Interferes with dephosphorylation of isoprenyl pyrophosphate; molecule carries peptidoglycan building blocks
Ampicillin and Amoxicillin
o Broad-spectrum penicillin's; safe for prescription but not resistant to beta-lactamase
o Effective aginst gram (-)
Extended-spectrum penicillin's *not know
o Works against most bacteria, gram(-) and gram (+)
Carbenicillin, Ticaracillin, Azlocillin, Piperacillin.
- May have hypersensitive reaction (rashes, fever) that may lead to anaphylactic shock in some cases
- Can cause antiplatelet effects
Come from the fungus CephalosporiumAcremonium.
Work by the same mechanisms as penicillin's; but work on gram (+), not effective against gram (-)
Have beta-lactam ring with dihydrothiazine ring, makes more resistant to beta-lactamases