Strouble MIS235 Final

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253 terms · MIS 235 chapter 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10,12 only vocabulary in back of chapters. Peter Kistner blows.

Network

collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines

Local Area Network (LAN)

connects computers that reside in a single geographic location

Access control list (acl)

a list that encodes the rules stating which packets are to be allowed through a firewall and which are to be prohibited

access device

devices typically special purpose computers that connect network sites. the particular device depends on the line used and other factors.

access point

a point in a wireless network that facilitates communication among wireless devices and serves as a point of interconnection between wireless and wired networks.

analog signal

a wavy signal. a modem converts the computer's digital into analog signals that can be transmitted over dial-up Internet connections.

asymmetrical digital subscriber line (adsl)

dsl lines that have different upload and download speeds

asymmetric encryption

an encryption method whereby different keys are used to encode and to decode the message.

asynchronous transfer mode (atm)

a protocol that divides data into uniformly sized cells, eliminates the need for protocol conversion and can process speeds 1 to 156 mbps. can support both voice and data communication

broadband

Internet communication lines that have speeds in excess 256 kbps. dsl and cable modems have access

cable modem

type modem that provides high-speed data transmission using cable television lines. always on

dial-up modem

a modem that performs the conversion between analog and digital in such a way that the signal can be carried on a regular telephone line

dsl (digital subscriber line) modem

uses voice telephone lines with a dsl modem; it operates so that the signals do not interfere with voice telephone service. faster that dial up

encryption

proces of transforming clear text into coded unintelligible text for secure storage or communication

encryption algorithms

algorithms used to transform clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication. common used are DES, 3DES, AES

ethernet

another name or the IEEE-802.3 protocol, ethernet is a network protocol that operates at Layers 1 and 2 of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture.

firewall

a computing device located between a firm's internal and external networks that prevents unauthorized access to or from the internal network.

frame relay

a protocol that can process traffic in the range of 56kbps to 40 mbps by packaging data into frames

https

an indication that a web browser is using the SSL/TLS protocol to ensure secure communication

internal firewall

a firewall that sits inside the organizational network

intenet

private network of networks

Internet

public internet

Internet service provider (ISP)

an isp provides users with Internet access. gives them an address, gateway, passes communication, collect money on your behalf

key

column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table. a number used to encrypt data

last mile problem

difficulty in getting the capacity of fast optical-fiber transmission lines from the street in front of buildings into the homes and small biz around

MAC address

also called physical address. a permanent address given to each network interface card (NIC) at the factory

modem (modulator/demodulator)

converts the computer's digital data into signals that can be transmitted over telephone or cable lines

narrowband

internet communication lines that have transmission speeds of 56kbps or less. a dial up modem provides narrowband access

network interface card (NIC)

hardware component on each device in a network that connects the device's circuitry to the communications line

network of leased lines

a WAN connection alternative. communication lines are leased from telecommunication companies and connected into a network.

onboard NIC

a built in NIC

optical fiber cable

type cable usend to connect computer, printers, switches, and other devices on a LAN. core surrounded by cladding. light signal reflected in glass core

packet-filtering firewall

a firewall that examines each packet and determine whether to let the packet pass.

perimeter firewall

firewall that sits outside the organizational network. first device the Internet traffic encounters

point to point protocol (PPP)

a layer-2 protocol used for networks that involve just two computers.

point of presence (POP)

location at which a line connects to a PSDN network

protocol

a standardized means for coordinating an activity between two or more entities

public key/private key

special version of asymmetric encryption that is popular on the Internet.

public switched data network (PSDN)

a WAN connection alternative. network of comps and leased lines developed and maintained by vendor that leases time on the network to other orgs.

router

special-purpose computer that moves network traffic from one node on a network to another

adware

programs installed on user's computer without user knowledge or permission. watches activity and produces pop-up ads

authentication

the process whereby an information system approves a user by checking the user's password

biometric authentification

use of personal physical characteristics to authenticate users

cold site

remote processing center that provides office space, but no computer equipment, for use by a company that needs to continue operations after a natural disaster

data administration

staff function that pertains to all of an organization's dat assets. set data standards, develop policy, provide for data security

database administration

management, development, operation, and maintenance, of the database so as to achieve the org's objectives.

data safeguards

steps taken to protect databases and other organizational data by means of data administration and database administration

denial of service (DOS)

security problem in which users are not able to access an IS; can be caused by human errors, natural disasters, or malicious activity

drive-by sniffer

people who take computers with wireless connections through an are and search for unprotected wireless networks in an attempt to gain free INternet access or to gather unauthorized data.

email spoofing

synonym for phishing, a technique for obtaining unauthorized data that uses pretexting via email.

hacking

occurs when a person gains unauthorized access to a computer system.

hardening

process of taking extraordinary measures to reduce a system's vulnerability.

hot site

a remote processing center, run by a commercial disaster-recovery service, that provides equipment a company would need to continue operations after a natural disaster.

human safeguards

steps taken to protect against security threats by establishing appropriate procedure for users to folow for system use

identification

process whereby an information system identifies a user by requiring the user to sign on with a username and password

IP spoofing

type of spoofing whereby an intruder uses another site's IP address as if it were that other site

key escrow

control procedure whereby a trusted party is given a copy of a key used to encrypt database data

malware

viruses, worms, trojan horse, spyware, and adware

malware definitions

patterns that exist in malware code.

personal identification numbers (PIN)

form of authentication whereby a user supplies a number that only he knows

phishing

technique used for obtaining unauthorized dat that uses pretexting via email

pretexting

a technique for gathering unauthorized information in which someone pretends to be someone else.

security threat

a problem with the security of an information system or the data therein caused by human error, malicious activity or natural activities

smart card

a plastic card similar to a credit card that has a microchip. normally requires a PIN

sniffing

technique for exchanging messages encoded in XML. SOAP sits on top of any available transport protocol as HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP

spoofing

when someone pretends to be someone else with intent of obtaining unauthorized data.

spyware

benign program installed on computer without user knowledge and keeps track of actions, keystrokes etc.,

technical safeguards

safeguards that involve the hardware and software components of an information system

unauthorized data disclosure

when a person inadvertently releases data in violation of policy

usurpation

occurs when unauthorized programs invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs.

adwords

a web 2.0 advertising product from google. vendors agree to pay a certain amount to google for use of particular search words which link to the vendor's site

adsense

web 2.0 product from google that searches an org's we site and inserts ads that match content on that site; when users click those ads google pays the org a fee

attribute

a variable that provides properties for an html tag

auctions

apps that match buyers and sellers by using e-commerce version of a standard, competitive-bidding auction process

beta program

a prerelease version of software, used for testing

browser

a program that processes HTTP protocol; receives, displays, and processes HTML documents and transmits responses

b2b

e-commerce sales between companies

b2c

e-commerce sales between a supplier and consumer/retailer

b2g

e-commerce sale between companies and govt orgs

channel conflict

in e-commerce a conflict that may result between a manufacturer that wants to sell products directly to consumers and the retailers in the existing sales channels

clearinghouse

entity that provides goods and services at a stated price, prices and arranges for the delivery of the goods, but never takes title of the goods

commerce server

computer that operates web-based programs that display products. support online ordering, record and process payments and interface with inventory-management applications

crowdsourcing

process by which orgs use web 2.0 technologies such as user-generated content to involve their users in the design and marketing of their products

database tier

in the three tier architecture the tier that runs the DBMS and receives and processes SQL requests to retrieve and store data

disintermediation

elimination of one or more middle layers of the supply chain

e-commerce

buying and selling of goods and services over public or private computer networks

electronic exchange

sites that facilitate the matching of buyers and sellers

hyperlink

pointer on a web page to another web page

hypertext markup language (HTML)

language that defines the structure and layout of web page

hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)

layer-5 protocol used to process web pages

mashup

combination of output from two or more web sites into a single user experience

merchant companies

in e-commerce companies that take title to the goods they sell. they buy goods and resell them

my maps

web 2.0 product that provides tools which users can make mods to maps provided by google

non-merchant companies

e-commerce companies that arrange for the purchase and sale of goods without ever owning or taking title to those goods

price elasticity

measure of the sensitivity in demand to changes in prices.

price conflict

in e-commerce a conflict that may result when manufacturers offer products at prices lower than those available through existing sales channels

server tier

in the three tier architecture the tier that consists of computers tha run web servers to generate web pages and other data in response to requests from browsers.

social networking

connections of people with similar interests

software as a service (SAAS)

business model whereby companies provide services based on their software, rather than providing software as a product. software as a service is example of web 2.0

tag

in markup language such as HTML and XML, notation used to define data element for display or other purposes

three-tier architecture

architecture used by most e-commerce server applications

user tier

tier in three tier architecture that consists of computers that have browsers that request and process web pages

user generated content (UGC)

in web 2.0 data and information that is provided by users.

viral marketing

method used in web 2.0 in which users spread news about products and services

web farm

facility that runs multiple web servers.

web page

documents encoded in HTML that are created, transmitted, and consumed during the world wide web

web server

program that processes HTML protocol and transmits web pages on demand

web storefront

in e-commerce web based app that enable customers to enter and manage their orders

web 2.0

loose cloud of capabilities, technologies, business models, and philosophies that characterize the new and emerging business uses of the Internet.

analysis paralysis

when too much time is spent documenting project requirements

beta testing

the process of allowing future system users to try out the new system on their own.

brook's law

"adding more people to a late project makes the project later"

component design phase

third phase in sdlc in which developers determine hardware and software specifications, design the database, design procedures, and create job descriptions for users and operations personnel

cost feasibility

one of four dimensions of feasibility

implementation phase

fourth phase in the sdlc in which developers build and integrate system component, test the system, and convert to the new system

maintenance phase

fifth/final phase of sdlc which developers record requests for changes, and fix failures by means patches, service packs, and new releases.

organizational feasibility

one of four dimensions of feasibility

parallel installation

type of system conversion in which the new system runs in parallel with the old one for a while. expensive

patch

group of fixes for high-priorit failures that can be applied to existing copies of a particular product.

phased installation

type of system conversion in which the new system is installed in pieces across the organization

pilot installation

type of system conversion in which the organization implements the entire system on a limited portion of the business

plunge installation

(direct installation) system conversion in which the organization shuts off the old system and starts the new system

product quality assurance (pqa)

testing of a systems. test plan, automated test programs

requirements analysis phase

second phase in the sdlc in which developers conduct user interviews, evaluate existing systems, determine new forms/reports/queries, identify new features and functions, including security, and create and data model

schedule feasibility

one of four dimensions of feasibility

service pack

large group of fixes that solve low-priority software problems

system conversion

process of concerting business activity from old system to the new

system definition phase

first phase of the sdlc in which developers with the help of eventual users, define new system's goals and scope, assess its feasibility, form a project team and plan the project

systems analysis and design

process of creating and maintaining information systems (systems development)

systems analysts

IS professionals who understand both business and technology

systems development

process of creating and maintaining informtaion systems (systems analysis and design)

systems development life cycle (sdlc)

classical process to develop information systems

technical feasibility

one of four dimensions of feasibility

test plan

groups of sequences of actions that users will take when using new system

waterfall

fiction that one phase of sdlc can be completed in its entirety and the project can progress without any backtracking to the next phase of sdlc

secure socket layer (SSL)

protocol that uses both asymmetric and symmetric encryption.

switch

special-purpose computer that receives and transmits data across a network

symmetric encryption

encryption method whereby same key is used to encode and decode the message

symmetrical digital subscriber line (sdsl)

dsl lines that have the same upload and download speeds

10/100/1000 ethernet

type of ethernet that conforms to the IEEE 802.3 protocol and allows for transmission at rate of 10, 100, 1000 mbps

transport layer security (tls)

protocol using both asymmetric and symmetric encryption that works between levels 4 and 5 of TCP-OSI protocol architecture

tunnel

a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server

unshielded twisted pair (utp) cable

type cable used to connect computer, printer, switches, and other devices on a LAN. has four pairs of twisted wire

virtual private network (VPN)

a WAN connection alternative that uses the internet or a private internet to create the appearance of a private point to point connections.

wide area network (WAN)

a network that connects computers located at different geographic locations

WiMax

emerging technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. design to deliver the "last mile" and could replace cable and dsl

Wireless NIC (WNIC)

devices that enable wireless networks by communicating with wireless access points.

ieee 802.3 protocol

the standard, also called ethernet

ieee 802.11 protocol

widely used today enables access within few hundred feet

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