collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines
Local Area Network (LAN)
connects computers that reside in a single geographic location
Access control list (acl)
a list that encodes the rules stating which packets are to be allowed through a firewall and which are to be prohibited
devices typically special purpose computers that connect network sites. the particular device depends on the line used and other factors.
a point in a wireless network that facilitates communication among wireless devices and serves as a point of interconnection between wireless and wired networks.
a wavy signal. a modem converts the computer's digital into analog signals that can be transmitted over dial-up Internet connections.
asymmetrical digital subscriber line (adsl)
dsl lines that have different upload and download speeds
an encryption method whereby different keys are used to encode and to decode the message.
asynchronous transfer mode (atm)
a protocol that divides data into uniformly sized cells, eliminates the need for protocol conversion and can process speeds 1 to 156 mbps. can support both voice and data communication
Internet communication lines that have speeds in excess 256 kbps. dsl and cable modems have access
type modem that provides high-speed data transmission using cable television lines. always on
a modem that performs the conversion between analog and digital in such a way that the signal can be carried on a regular telephone line
dsl (digital subscriber line) modem
uses voice telephone lines with a dsl modem; it operates so that the signals do not interfere with voice telephone service. faster that dial up
proces of transforming clear text into coded unintelligible text for secure storage or communication
algorithms used to transform clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication. common used are DES, 3DES, AES
another name or the IEEE-802.3 protocol, ethernet is a network protocol that operates at Layers 1 and 2 of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture.
a computing device located between a firm's internal and external networks that prevents unauthorized access to or from the internal network.
a protocol that can process traffic in the range of 56kbps to 40 mbps by packaging data into frames
an indication that a web browser is using the SSL/TLS protocol to ensure secure communication
a firewall that sits inside the organizational network
private network of networks
Internet service provider (ISP)
an isp provides users with Internet access. gives them an address, gateway, passes communication, collect money on your behalf
column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table. a number used to encrypt data
last mile problem
difficulty in getting the capacity of fast optical-fiber transmission lines from the street in front of buildings into the homes and small biz around
also called physical address. a permanent address given to each network interface card (NIC) at the factory
converts the computer's digital data into signals that can be transmitted over telephone or cable lines
internet communication lines that have transmission speeds of 56kbps or less. a dial up modem provides narrowband access
network interface card (NIC)
hardware component on each device in a network that connects the device's circuitry to the communications line
network of leased lines
a WAN connection alternative. communication lines are leased from telecommunication companies and connected into a network.
a built in NIC
optical fiber cable
type cable usend to connect computer, printers, switches, and other devices on a LAN. core surrounded by cladding. light signal reflected in glass core
a firewall that examines each packet and determine whether to let the packet pass.
firewall that sits outside the organizational network. first device the Internet traffic encounters
point to point protocol (PPP)
a layer-2 protocol used for networks that involve just two computers.
point of presence (POP)
location at which a line connects to a PSDN network
a standardized means for coordinating an activity between two or more entities
public key/private key
special version of asymmetric encryption that is popular on the Internet.
public switched data network (PSDN)
a WAN connection alternative. network of comps and leased lines developed and maintained by vendor that leases time on the network to other orgs.
special-purpose computer that moves network traffic from one node on a network to another
programs installed on user's computer without user knowledge or permission. watches activity and produces pop-up ads
the process whereby an information system approves a user by checking the user's password
use of personal physical characteristics to authenticate users
remote processing center that provides office space, but no computer equipment, for use by a company that needs to continue operations after a natural disaster
staff function that pertains to all of an organization's dat assets. set data standards, develop policy, provide for data security
management, development, operation, and maintenance, of the database so as to achieve the org's objectives.
steps taken to protect databases and other organizational data by means of data administration and database administration
denial of service (DOS)
security problem in which users are not able to access an IS; can be caused by human errors, natural disasters, or malicious activity
people who take computers with wireless connections through an are and search for unprotected wireless networks in an attempt to gain free INternet access or to gather unauthorized data.
synonym for phishing, a technique for obtaining unauthorized data that uses pretexting via email.
occurs when a person gains unauthorized access to a computer system.
process of taking extraordinary measures to reduce a system's vulnerability.
a remote processing center, run by a commercial disaster-recovery service, that provides equipment a company would need to continue operations after a natural disaster.
steps taken to protect against security threats by establishing appropriate procedure for users to folow for system use
process whereby an information system identifies a user by requiring the user to sign on with a username and password
type of spoofing whereby an intruder uses another site's IP address as if it were that other site
control procedure whereby a trusted party is given a copy of a key used to encrypt database data
viruses, worms, trojan horse, spyware, and adware
patterns that exist in malware code.
personal identification numbers (PIN)
form of authentication whereby a user supplies a number that only he knows
technique used for obtaining unauthorized dat that uses pretexting via email
a technique for gathering unauthorized information in which someone pretends to be someone else.
a problem with the security of an information system or the data therein caused by human error, malicious activity or natural activities
a plastic card similar to a credit card that has a microchip. normally requires a PIN
technique for exchanging messages encoded in XML. SOAP sits on top of any available transport protocol as HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP
when someone pretends to be someone else with intent of obtaining unauthorized data.
benign program installed on computer without user knowledge and keeps track of actions, keystrokes etc.,
safeguards that involve the hardware and software components of an information system
unauthorized data disclosure
when a person inadvertently releases data in violation of policy
occurs when unauthorized programs invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs.
a web 2.0 advertising product from google. vendors agree to pay a certain amount to google for use of particular search words which link to the vendor's site
web 2.0 product from google that searches an org's we site and inserts ads that match content on that site; when users click those ads google pays the org a fee
a variable that provides properties for an html tag
apps that match buyers and sellers by using e-commerce version of a standard, competitive-bidding auction process
a prerelease version of software, used for testing
a program that processes HTTP protocol; receives, displays, and processes HTML documents and transmits responses
e-commerce sales between companies
e-commerce sales between a supplier and consumer/retailer
e-commerce sale between companies and govt orgs
in e-commerce a conflict that may result between a manufacturer that wants to sell products directly to consumers and the retailers in the existing sales channels
entity that provides goods and services at a stated price, prices and arranges for the delivery of the goods, but never takes title of the goods
computer that operates web-based programs that display products. support online ordering, record and process payments and interface with inventory-management applications
process by which orgs use web 2.0 technologies such as user-generated content to involve their users in the design and marketing of their products
in the three tier architecture the tier that runs the DBMS and receives and processes SQL requests to retrieve and store data
elimination of one or more middle layers of the supply chain
buying and selling of goods and services over public or private computer networks
sites that facilitate the matching of buyers and sellers
pointer on a web page to another web page
hypertext markup language (HTML)
language that defines the structure and layout of web page
hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
layer-5 protocol used to process web pages
combination of output from two or more web sites into a single user experience
in e-commerce companies that take title to the goods they sell. they buy goods and resell them
web 2.0 product that provides tools which users can make mods to maps provided by google
e-commerce companies that arrange for the purchase and sale of goods without ever owning or taking title to those goods
measure of the sensitivity in demand to changes in prices.
in e-commerce a conflict that may result when manufacturers offer products at prices lower than those available through existing sales channels
in the three tier architecture the tier that consists of computers tha run web servers to generate web pages and other data in response to requests from browsers.
connections of people with similar interests
software as a service (SAAS)
business model whereby companies provide services based on their software, rather than providing software as a product. software as a service is example of web 2.0
in markup language such as HTML and XML, notation used to define data element for display or other purposes
architecture used by most e-commerce server applications
tier in three tier architecture that consists of computers that have browsers that request and process web pages
user generated content (UGC)
in web 2.0 data and information that is provided by users.
method used in web 2.0 in which users spread news about products and services
facility that runs multiple web servers.
documents encoded in HTML that are created, transmitted, and consumed during the world wide web
program that processes HTML protocol and transmits web pages on demand
in e-commerce web based app that enable customers to enter and manage their orders
loose cloud of capabilities, technologies, business models, and philosophies that characterize the new and emerging business uses of the Internet.
when too much time is spent documenting project requirements
the process of allowing future system users to try out the new system on their own.
"adding more people to a late project makes the project later"
component design phase
third phase in sdlc in which developers determine hardware and software specifications, design the database, design procedures, and create job descriptions for users and operations personnel
one of four dimensions of feasibility
fourth phase in the sdlc in which developers build and integrate system component, test the system, and convert to the new system
fifth/final phase of sdlc which developers record requests for changes, and fix failures by means patches, service packs, and new releases.
one of four dimensions of feasibility
type of system conversion in which the new system runs in parallel with the old one for a while. expensive
group of fixes for high-priorit failures that can be applied to existing copies of a particular product.
type of system conversion in which the new system is installed in pieces across the organization
type of system conversion in which the organization implements the entire system on a limited portion of the business
(direct installation) system conversion in which the organization shuts off the old system and starts the new system
product quality assurance (pqa)
testing of a systems. test plan, automated test programs
requirements analysis phase
second phase in the sdlc in which developers conduct user interviews, evaluate existing systems, determine new forms/reports/queries, identify new features and functions, including security, and create and data model
one of four dimensions of feasibility
large group of fixes that solve low-priority software problems
process of concerting business activity from old system to the new
system definition phase
first phase of the sdlc in which developers with the help of eventual users, define new system's goals and scope, assess its feasibility, form a project team and plan the project
systems analysis and design
process of creating and maintaining information systems (systems development)
IS professionals who understand both business and technology
process of creating and maintaining informtaion systems (systems analysis and design)
systems development life cycle (sdlc)
classical process to develop information systems
one of four dimensions of feasibility
groups of sequences of actions that users will take when using new system
fiction that one phase of sdlc can be completed in its entirety and the project can progress without any backtracking to the next phase of sdlc
secure socket layer (SSL)
protocol that uses both asymmetric and symmetric encryption.
special-purpose computer that receives and transmits data across a network
encryption method whereby same key is used to encode and decode the message
symmetrical digital subscriber line (sdsl)
dsl lines that have the same upload and download speeds
type of ethernet that conforms to the IEEE 802.3 protocol and allows for transmission at rate of 10, 100, 1000 mbps
transport layer security (tls)
protocol using both asymmetric and symmetric encryption that works between levels 4 and 5 of TCP-OSI protocol architecture
a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server
unshielded twisted pair (utp) cable
type cable used to connect computer, printer, switches, and other devices on a LAN. has four pairs of twisted wire
virtual private network (VPN)
a WAN connection alternative that uses the internet or a private internet to create the appearance of a private point to point connections.
wide area network (WAN)
a network that connects computers located at different geographic locations
emerging technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. design to deliver the "last mile" and could replace cable and dsl
Wireless NIC (WNIC)
devices that enable wireless networks by communicating with wireless access points.
ieee 802.3 protocol
the standard, also called ethernet
ieee 802.11 protocol
widely used today enables access within few hundred feet
ieee 802.16 protocol
emerging new technology also known as wimax enable broadband access for fixed nomadic and portable applications.
an online journal which uses technology to publish information over the internet
one of the five fundamental components of an information system
Computer-based Information system
an information system that includes a computer
recorded facts or figures. one of the five fundamental components of an information systems
five fundamental components of any information system--computer hardware, software, data, procedures, and people--that are present in ever IS from simplest to most complex
Information System (IS)
group of components that interact to produce information
products, methods, inventions, and standards that used for the purpose of producing information
Management information systems (MIS)
an information system that helps businesses achieve their goals and objectives
number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months
part of five component framework, includes those who operate and service the computers, maintain data, support networks, and those who use the system.
instructions for humans. one of five fundamental components for an information system
instructions for computers. one of the five fundamental components of an information system
a password with the following characteristics:seven more characters, no names, no complete words, different than old passwords, contains upper and lower case letters, numbers, special characters
group of components that interact to achieve some purpose
information that is based on correct and complete data and that has been processed correctly as expected
part of a business process that transforms resources and info of one type into resources and info of another type
a network of activities, resources, facilities, and information that interact to achieve soem business function; sometimes called a business system
another term for business process
structures within a business process
knowledge derived fro data where data is defined as recorded figures. data presented in meaningful context. data processed by operations. a difference that makes a difference.
just barely sufficient information
information that meets the purpose for which it is generated but just barely so
an information system in which the activity of processing information is done by people, without the use of automated processing
information that is appropriate to both the context and the subject
items of value such as inventory or funds, that are a part of the business process
information that is produced in time for its intended use
information in which an appropriate relationship exists between the value of the information and the cost of creating it
strategy an org chooses as the way it will succeed in its industry.
five forces model
model, proposed by michael porter that assesses the industry characteristics and profitability by means of five competitive forces-bargaining power of suppliers, threat of substitution, bargaining power of customers, rivalry among firms, and threat of new entrants
process interactions across value chains. important sources of efficiencies and are readily supported by IS
difference between value and cost
in porter's value chain model the fundamental activities that create value-inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing/sales and service
in porter's value chain model the activities that contribute indirectly to value creation--procurement, technology, human resources, and the firms' infrastructure
business strategy of locking in customers by making it difficult or expensive to change to another product or supplier
network of value-creating activities
dbms product from microsoft
a character of data
also called fields
self-describing collection of integrated records, consists of tables, relationships among rows, and metadata
collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database
database application system
consists of users, database application (forms, reports, queries, application programs), Database management system, database
database management system
program used to create, process and administer a database
process large organizational and workgroup databases
also called column
group of similar rows or records
keys of a different table than the one they reside in
used to read, insert, modify, and delete data
column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table
issue in multi-user processing in which two or more users try to make changes to the data but the database cannot make the changes because it was not designed to process changes from multiple users
data that describes data
multiple users processing the same database
open source DBMS
DBMS from Oracle corp.
allows user to search for a keyword
designed for smaller, simpler database applications, fewer than 100 users
also called row
formal name for a table
databases that carry their data in the form of tables and represent relationships using foreign keys
show data in a structured context
also called records
Structured Query Language
an international standard language for processing a database
also called file
documents current situation and then change model to make adjustments necessary to solve process problems
Business process management
systematic process of creating, assessing, and altering business processes
Business process modeling notation
standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business processes
activities among several business departments
customer relationship management
classic example of cross-functional process, involves activities from sales, marketing, operations, and customer support
places the logic in one desirable place and all other services go to that one place for that service
an activity sends a message then forgets about it
activities within a single department or function
processes that cross organizational boundaries
island of automation
issue with functional processes, because they work independently of one another it cannot produce sufficient productivity and efficiency for businesses
object management group
software-industry standards organization
repeatable task that a business needs to perform
best of practice techniques for information systems
protocol for exchanging messages encoded in XML
can be used to simplify process diagrams and draw attention to interactions among components of the of the diagram
meta data that name and identify data items
web services description language
languages for describing the programmatic interface to a service, makes service to service programming easier
extensible markup language, used to model and structure data
set of xml tags and data
an xml document whose content describes the structure of other xml documents
business intelligence system
an information system that provides information for improving decision making
data from customer's clicking behavior
find groups of similar customers from customer order and demographic data
curse of dimensionality
the more attributes there are, the easier it is to build a model that fits the sample data but that is worthless as a predictor
data collection created to address the needs of a particular business function, problem or opportunity
application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data and to classify and predict
process data using sophisticated statistical techniques
extracts and cleans data from operational systems to store and catalog for processing for BI tools
problematic data (inconsistent or missing values)
equals 1000 petabytes
encapsulate the knowledge of human experts in the form of If/Then rules
refers to degree of summarization or detail
create value from intellectual capital by collecting and sharing human knowledge of products, product uses, best practices, and other critical knowledge with employees, managers, customers, suppliers, and others who need it
computes correlations of items on past orders to determine items that are frequently purchased together
used to predict values and make classifications such as "good prospect" or "poor prospect" customers
measures the impact of a set of variables on another variable
integrate data from multiple sources, process data by sorting, grouping, summing, averaging, and comparing
supervised data mining
data miners develop a model prior to the analysis and apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of the model
unsupervised data mining
analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis