Chapter 10 Study Guide Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

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This study guide is based off of Biology by Sylvia Mader 10th edition. The chapter is number 10 titled Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. In the learn based tool, prompt with term and copy the "whole" answer and paste it into the answer box.

Which of the following steps would NOT lead to variation of genetic material?
A. crossing over of homologous chromosomes
B. crossing over of sister chromatids
C. the random alignment of the chromosomes during metaphase I
D. the combination of sperm and egg genes.

B. crossing over of sister chromatids

Which of the following is NOT a difference between anaphase I and anaphase II?
A. At the end of anaphase I, each chromosome is composed of two chromatids and at the end of anaphase II, sister chromatids have separated, becoming daughter chromosomes
B. Anaphase I occurs in a haploid cell while anaphase II occurs in a diploid cell.
C. Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II while homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I.
D. The cell undergoing anaphase II is genetically different from what it contained while undergoing anaphase I.

B. Anaphase I occurs in a haploid cell while anaphase II occurs in a diploid cell.

It could be said that males are able to provide gametes with more genetic diversity than females for reproduction. One main reason would be:
A. Males provide more genes in sperm than females provide in eggs.
B. Crossing over occurs more often in the formation of sperm than in eggs.
C. Spermatogenesis in males results in four functional sperm while oogenesis in females results in only one egg and three structures that contain genetic information that is lost when they disintegrate.
D. Sperm that contain a recombination of genes are usually more successful in fertilizing an egg.

C. Spermatogenesis in males results in four functional sperm while oogenesis in females results in only one egg and three structures that contain genetic information that is lost when they disintegrate.

The cell formed through fertilization of an egg by a sperm is called a/an
A. gamete.
B. sperm cell.
C. zygote.
D. egg cell.
E. ovum.

C. zygote.

If a sperm cell contains 8 chromosomes, it comes from an animal that has ______ chromosomes.
A. 4
B. 8
C. 12
D. 16
E. 24

D. 16

Another name for a tetrad is a/an
A. homologue.
B. bivalent.
C. öocyte.
D. gamete.
E. polar body.

B. bivalent.

If a cell contains 12 chromosomes at the end of meiosis I, how many chromosomes will the daughter cells contain at the end of meiosis II?
A. 3
B. 6
C. 12
D. 24

C. 12

During which stage of meiosis does crossing-over occur?
A. prophase I of meiosis I
B. anaphase I of meiosis II
C. telophase I of meiosis I
D. prophase II of meiosis II
E. anaphase II of meiosis I

A. prophase I of meiosis I

Homologous chromosomes are similar in all of these characteristics EXCEPT:
A. similar in size.
B. carry the same alleles for all traits.
C. carry genes for the same traits.
D. similar in shape and location of the centromere.

B. carry the same alleles for all traits.

What is the importance of crossing-over?
A. It provides extra genetic material for the daughter cells.
B. It increases the likelihood that daughter cells contain different genetic material.
C. It produces the proteins that are associated with DNA in chromosomes.
D. It increases chromosome condensation.
E. It separates the homologous chromosomes.

B. It increases the likelihood that daughter cells contain different genetic material.

The overall function of meiosis includes all of the following EXCEPT
A. gamete production.
B. reduction of chromosome number (from 2N to N).
C. providing genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms.
D. growth of the overall individual.

D. growth of the overall individual.

Sources of genetic variation in a sexually reproducing population include(s) which of the following?
A. crossing over in Prophase I of meiosis
B. independent assortment in Metaphase I of meiosis
C. fertilization
D. All of the choices are sources of genetic variation.
E. A and C only

D. All of the choices are sources of genetic variation.

To what does the term chiasma refer?
A. the process of fertilization
B. the life cycle of a fungus
C. the process of crossing-over
D. a structure that holds together homologues during crossing-over
E. the period between meiosis I and meiosis II

D. a structure that holds together homologues during crossing-over

During which stage of meiosis are the bivalents arranged along the equator?
A. prophase I
B. metaphase II
C. anaphase II
D. prophase II
E. metaphase I

E. metaphase I

At which stage of meiosis is each chromosome composed of a single chromatid?
A. prophase I
B. metaphase II
C. anaphase II
D. prophase II
E. metaphase I

C. anaphase II

During which stage of meiosis does homologue separation occur?
A. prophase I
B. anaphase I
C. telophase I
D. prophase II
E. anaphase II

B. anaphase I

Which statement is NOT true about homologues in meiosis I?
A. Homologous chromosomes pair to form a tetrad.
B. Homologous chromosomes separate and go to different daughter cells.
C. Each homologue's centromere splits to form two chromosomes.
D. Homologues exchange genetic material between non-sister chromatids.
E. Homologues interact with the spindle as if they were one chromosome.

C. Each homologue's centromere splits to form two chromosomes.

In the genus Lacerta are species of lizards that are female and do not mate. They undergo "endomitosis" where one extra chromosome replication results in a tetraploid cell before meiosis begins. Normal female 2n offspring result without fertilization. What change(s) from regular meiosis (in preparation for fertilization) would be required to produce this system?
A. The haploid cell products of meiosis II fuse.
B. Meiosis stops after meiosis I and does not proceed to meiosis II.
C. Cytokinesis does not follow "endomitosis" that results in a tetraploid cell.
D. During anaphase II, the sister centromeres fail to separate and daughter cells will not form.
E. During anaphase II, the daughter chromosomes are non-disjunctive and are all pulled to one daughter cell.

C. Cytokinesis does not follow "endomitosis" that results in a tetraploid cell.

Interkinesis is different from interphase in which way?
A. Interkinesis occurs after a cell finishes a nuclear division.
B. Interkinesis is the stage that precedes a prophase stage.
C. Interphase involves DNA replication and interkinesis does not.
D. Interkinesis can be variable in length.

C. Interphase involves DNA replication and interkinesis does not.

Which does NOT occur in meiosis?
A. two daughter cells at completion
B. four daughter cells at completion
C. two nuclear divisions
D. formation of bivalents

A. two daughter cells at completion

Meiosis occurs during all of the following EXCEPT
A. gametogenesis.
B. oogenesis.
C. pangenesis.
D. spermatogenesis.

C. pangenesis.

The polar body is
A. another name for an egg cell.
B. a precursor cell that becomes an egg cell.
C. a nonfunctional cell rudiment formed at the same time as an egg cell.
D. the cell produced when fertilization occurs.

C. a nonfunctional cell rudiment formed at the same time as an egg cell.

Why do polar bodies form?
A. They nurse the egg as it leaves the follicle.
B. This is extra chromosomal material representing the X chromosome in each female cell.
C. They orient the sperm toward the egg.
D. They allow a reduction in chromosomes while preserving all the food for one egg.
E. They orient the egg for penetration by the sperm.

D. They allow a reduction in chromosomes while preserving all the food for one egg.

Which of the following is/are true about sexual reproduction?
A. At the cellular level is the opposite of reproduction since it involves two cells fusing to become one.
B. It requires the development of organs such as the uterus, which are of no immediate survival advantage to the individual but are advantageous to the species.
C. It regularly produces a wider array of adaptations to the external environment in a shorter period of time.
D. It regularly produces a wider array of adaptations to the internal environment (disease agents, parasites) in a shorter period of time.
E. All of the choices are true.

E. All of the choices are true.

Species X reproduces asexually by fission and species Y reproduces sexually. Consider that all other relevant characteristics are similar between these species. When the environment gradually changes, then
A. species X and Y will have an equal chance of surviving.
B. species Y should have a better chance of surviving than species X.
C. species X should have a better chance of surviving than species Y.
D. neither species should have an advantage in surviving since organisms often become extinct when the environment changes.

B. species Y should have a better chance of surviving than species X.

Before the time of Gregor Mendel and genetics, sexual reproduction was thought to produce a blending or equal mixing of the parents' traits. Today we know that
A. offspring will be identical to one another and demonstrate traits exactly halfway between the parents' traits.
B. offspring can vary from receiving over 99% of one parent's genes to receiving over 99% of the other parent's genes.
C. offspring inherit essentially 50% of their genes from each parent, but two sibling offspring may share with each other from zero to 23 chromosomes in common from each parent, and further variation may occur due to crossing-over.
D. offspring inherit copies of the same 23 pair of chromosomes from each of their parents but the rate of crossing-over makes them very dissimilar.
E. there is one chance in 23 of getting identical sets of chromosomes from one parent, times two because there are two parents; therefore, two siblings out of every 46 are really identical except for crossing-over.

C. offspring inherit essentially 50% of their genes from each parent, but two sibling offspring may share with each other from zero to 23 chromosomes in common from each parent, and further variation may occur due to crossing-over.

There is a species of desert lizard where only females are known to exist-there are no males known. It is nevertheless necessary for two females to court and for one to assume the posture of a male to stimulate the female to produce eggs. No fertilization can occur, and the eggs develop into female lizards. What is the probable evolutionary mechanism for this occurring?
A. The species is probably going extinct.
B. The desert is relatively uniform and there is little advantage to maintaining variation, but the animal has not been able to completely evolve away from its heritage of sexual reproduction.
C. This switch in mating behavior is the direct physical reflection of crossing-over.
D. This is probably an asexual organism attempting to mimic sexual reproduction.

B. The desert is relatively uniform and there is little advantage to maintaining variation, but the animal has not been able to completely evolve away from its heritage of sexual reproduction.

In human females, when is meiosis II completed?
A. at ovulation
B. immediately after the sperm penetration of the secondary oocyte
C. immediately after the sperm penetrates the primary oocyte
D. None of the choices are correct.

B. immediately after the sperm penetration of the secondary oocyte

Where in the human male does spermatogenesis occur?
A. ovaries
B. prostate gland
C. epididymus
D. testes

D. testes

Which is NOT true about daughter cells of mitosis or meiosis?
A. In meiosis, daughter cells are haploid.
B. In meiosis, there are four daughter cells.
C. In mitosis, there are two daughter cells.
D. In mitosis, the daughter cells are genetically identical.
E. In meiosis, the daughter cells are genetically identical.

E. In meiosis, the daughter cells are genetically identical.

All of the following are true concerning Down Syndrome EXCEPT
A. it is caused by autosomal trisomy 21
B. in 23% of cases, the sperm contributes the extra chromosome
C. it is the most common trisomy in humans
D. chances of a woman having a child with Down Syndrome decreases with her age

D. chances of a woman having a child with Down Syndrome decreases with her age

The correct number of chromosomes in a species is known as aneuploidy
True False

False

A change in the chromosome number resulting from nondisjunction is called euploidy.
True False

False

Monosomy occurs when an individual has only one of a particular type of chromosome.
Refer To; 10-35
True False

True

Primary nondisjunction occurs during meiosis II when the sister chromatids fail to separate and both daughter chromosomes go in the same gamete.
True False

False

Sex chromosome aneuploids are better tolerated and have a better chance of producing survivors.
True False

True

The picture at right depicts which of the following changes in chromosome structure.

A. deletion
B. duplication
C. translocation
D. aneuploidy

B. duplication

Extra copies of sex chromosomes are more easily tolerated in humans than extra copies of autosomes.
True False

True

The picture at right depicts which of the following changes in chromosome structure.

A. deletion
B. duplication
C. translocation
D. aneuploidy

C. translocation

Oogenesis always involves an equal division of cell contents in the formation of an egg and polar bodies.
True False

False

A lattice holds the members of a bivalent together in such a way that the RNA of the non-sister chromatids is aligned.
True False

False

It is estimated that an average of two or three cross-overs occur per human chromosome.
True False

True

Aneuploidy is a change in the number of chromosomes resulting from nondisjunction during meiosis.
True False

True

Only one of the four daughter cells becomes a functional gamete in spermatogenesis.
True False

False

Jacobs Syndrome, XYY, results from nondisjunction during spermatogenesis.
True False

True

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