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Timbre

n. The quality of a tone, as distinguished from intensity and pitch.3

Meter

rhythm as given by division into parts of equal time

Rhythm

the basic rhythmic unit in a piece of music

Melody

a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence

Texture

the musical pattern created by parts being played or sung together

Harmony

a harmonious state of things in general and of their properties (as of colors and sounds)

string instruments

Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass

brass instruments

trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba

woodwinds

Flutes, Oboes, Clarinets, Bassoons, Piccolos, English Horns

Double reed

a pair of joined reeds that vibrate together to produce the sound in some woodwinds

Major

happy

Monophony

music consisting of a single vocal part (usually with accompaniment)

Homophony

part music with one dominant voice (in a homophonic style)

Polyphony

music arranged in parts for several voices or instruments

Vocal Registers

Differences in the mode of vibration of vocal folds (chest voice, head voice, middle voice, whistle register)

Legato

without breaks between notes

Staccato

separating the notes

Duple

two beat measure

Little C

overarching genre

Emotional Listening

...

Attentive Listening

...

Big C

historical period

basso continuo

a bass part written out in full and accompanied by numbers to indicate the chords to be played

Figured Bass

Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer.

recitative

use of the basso continuo for accompaniment facilitated a new style of dramatic singing

opera

The signature form of the baroque era

Beauty

Classical Period

String quartet

(two violins, viola, cello)

Piano trio

(piano, violin, cello)

Woodwind Quintet

(flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, french horn)

symphony

Four movements (fast-slow-dance-fast)
1st movement in sonata form
2nd movement was lyrical like an aria
3rd movement was in a dance form
4th movement was a fast finale

Opera seria

Italian serious opera

Opera buffa

Comic opera

Singspiel

Comic German drama with spoken dialogue; the immediate predecessor of Romantic German opera.

program music

Instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the nineteenth century.

Strophic

a musical structure in which the same music is used for each stanza of a ballad, song, or hymn

Modified Strophic

Intermediate song structure that features some repetition or variations of a melody as well as new material

Theme and Variations

A theme is played in original form, then played again a # of times in sequence, each time varied a different way

Typical variation strategies

Decoration (ornamenting) the melody
Changing modes (e.g. minor to major)
Placing the melody in the bass
Changing the harmony
Changing the speed (tempo)

Return-based forms

Ternary
Rondo
Sonata form

Ternary

musical form that consists of 3 sections ABA, in which the A's stay the same and the B contrasts with A

Rondo

A musical composition during which the first part or subject is repeated several times.

Sonata form

a musical form having 3 sections -- exposition and development and recapitulation

Embouchure

the aperture of a wind instrument into which the player blows directly

Staccato

marked by or composed of disconnected parts or sounds

SATB

Soprano - Alto - Tenor - Bass

Soprano

the pitch range of the highest female voice

Alto

the pitch range of the lowest female voice

Tenor

the pitch range of the highest male voice

Bass

the lowest adult male singing voice

Countertenors

Men who can sing in high voice

Chest voice

the lower ranges of the voice in speaking or singing

Head voice

the higher ranges of the voice in speaking or singing

Middle voice

The passive voice sometimes has a reflexive meaning, corresponding to the Greek Middle Voice.
Induitur vestem. He puts on his clothes.

timbre

(music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound)

Vandervelde: Genesis II

Piano Trio: violin, cello, piano

Duple Meter

2 or 4 beats per measure

Triple Meter

three beats per measure

Strong, memorable melody

short, uncomplicated piece

Short melodic material

long, highly developed piece

Intervals

intervening periods of time; periods of temporary pause; space between to objects

Conjucnt

Smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals

Disjunct

progressing melodically by intervals larger than a major second

Open

sounds unfinished

Closed

sounds final

Phrasing

Like a music sentence

major

happy

Consonance

The repetition of consonant sounds

Dissonance

harsh or grating sounds that do not go together

Monophony

one note at a time

Polyphony

more than one melody at a time

Homophony

melody and harmony move together

Melody and accompaniment

melody stands out, but accompaniment moves independently

Key

the musical center of a song

fugue

the Subject - melodic theme
Presented in each voice
Tossed around, fragmented, developed

Harmony

Chords that support the melody, and how those chords relate to each other

Texture

How many different things are going on in the music

Chromaticism

Filling in the "cracks" of a scale
Effects how a melody is harmonized
Increased from the Classical to the Romantic to the Modern Period

Bach

very little dissonance; always resolved correctly harmonies relate to the key and derived from melody

Beethoven

moderate dissonance; always resolved functional harmonies relate to the key

Chopin

increased dissonance; generally resolved correctly
functional harmonies relate to the key, but stretched chromatically

Three types of text-music relationship

Semantic
Phonetic
Syntactic

Semantic

referring to the relationships between words and meanings

Phonetic

of or relating to speech sounds

Syntactic

grammatical

Plot content supported by music

Character themes
Emotion
Action
Scene change
Genre

Opera Seria

serious opera

Oratorio

a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

Musical Numbers

songs, ensembles, instrumental

Recitative

Speech-like portion in an opera
Often precedes an aria
Facilitates dramatic action without getting musically in the way

Aria

Sustained, sung solos
Slows the dramatic action
Experience the drama in greater depth
Allows the audience insight into the character

Verdi

Italian operatic composer (1813-1901)

Wagner

German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused (1813-1883)

music drama

An opera that avoids discrete numbers such as arias, recitatives, or ensembles, and in which the music reflects or embodies the action of the drama. Started by Wagner.

Oratorio

Like an opera, but not fully staged
Written as concert pieces
Similar to a numbers opera with recitatives and arias

Absolute Music

Music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program

Comic Opera

opera with a happy ending and in which some of the text is spoken

Opera Buffa

Comic opera

leider

A German art song for solo voice and piano.

12 tone composers

Schoenderg, webren, berg

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