Specific to General. Example: look at 4 parking lots, and assume ALL cars all over the world are the same.
General to Specific. Example: if cars have 4 wheels, then my car has 4 wheels too.
based on deductive reasoning. Must be: a) testable b) falsifiable
set to test a specific hypothesis.
effect depends on something we do. Example: We have two plants, one gets light the other doesn't. (Growth)
is controlled in an experiment (light in plant experiment)
The one that gets the placebo
A range; the tighter the error bars, the more certainty (accurate).
The greater the better, more accurate. A greater sample=tighter standard error-> certainty
Evolution- Wallace and Darwin
theory that species are related to each other and can change through out time. All species are related by common ancestry, species are modified generation to generation.
Explains how evolution happens. Survival of the fittest.
ability of an individual to produce offspring.
Trait that increases fitness of an individual in a particular setting. Must be hereditary traits. Example: Galapago's Finches, Giraffes.
similarities. resulting from ancestry. Example: siblings with same hair color. Studied at three levels: 1) Structural 2) developmental 3) Genetic
interactions organisms have amongst each other and with the environment. Population of species in a certain area. Described: How many? Where?
U-Shaped curve. Doesn't mean unlimited growth because of Carrying Capacity.
Amount an area can hold. e.g. the supply of resources
S-Shaped curve. No growth. Stays the same. Death rate is the same as the birth rate.
Density Dependent Factors
Limited supply of resources due to population size. Example: food supply, increased risk factors, etc.
Density Independent Factors
things that will happen regardless of population size (ex: natural disasters like droughts, hurricanes etc.)
increase in population that leads to an increased competition for resource (exceeding carrying capacity), which leads to an increase in death rate.
triangular shaped when still growing,
Endangered Species Act (1973)
Four Threats: 1) Loss/Degradation of Habitat 2) Non-Native Invasive Species 3) Over harvesting 4) Pollution
Species Area Curve
shows relationship of number of species an area can support.
Large areas of natural habitat are broken up. Especially threatening because: a) Decrease in size of habitat b) Decreased ability for individuals to move c) Threatens predators that need large areas.
Sun (Abiotic: Non-living), Primary Producers, Consumers, Decomposers
Level of food chain. Only 20% energy is transferred from level to level.
plants and other photosynthetic organisms.
feed on producers.
predators that feed on primary consumers.
Economic and Biological: plants serve as food and fiber etc. Animals give food, fur, material goods. Oceans are sources of protein. Medical products from both plants and animals.
Consequences of Extinction
Loss of Resource. Disruption of Ecological Communities, Damaged Ecosystems.
Predation (Web of Life)
one organism feeds on another.
Competition (Web of Life)
two predators feed on same prey.
Mutualism (Web of Life)
relationship increases growth or population of both species.
Preserving Biodiversity: Conservation Methods
1) Sustainable Development 2) Stabilizing Human Population 3) Situ Conservation- artificial settings like zoo's 4) Ecosystem Restoration.
to unfairly influence an experiment can be avoided with a blind experiment.
all of the individuals of a species in a given area.
species lost on a global scale
when rate of human use