Warren G. Harding;s Term
Harding, the man
delegateed authority too uch, unable to grasp the responsibilites of office, lacked self confidence-more loyal to his party than his own convictions, too fond og
Harding, the Theme
a return to "normalcy" [the opposite of the politically progressive, first 20 years of 1900's-even though the porblems did not evaporate]
Democrats from Urban Areas, N&W
equality(referred to as liberals), continue progressive reform, pro-labor/worker/proletariat, regulatory gov't
Republicans from Rural Areas and Dems from S
liberty (referred to as conservatives), halt progressive reform, pro-management/ owner/ bourgeoisie, Laissez faire gov't
Budget & Accounting Act of 1921
formalized the prepatation of a unified gov't budget for fed gov't
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
immigraions resriction based on 3% of the 1910 census
National Maternity & Infancy Protection Act (Sheppard-Towner Act)
the last gasp of Progressive reform...fed matching funds [until 1929] for pre-natal careclinics
Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922
secretary of the treasury, will pursue tax reductions bills in 1921, 1924, 1926, 1928
Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill
introduced in 1921 by Congressman Leonidas Dyer (R) Missouri. the bill was designed to end the crime of lynching nationwide. aided by the NAACP, the Dyer Bill passes the house, but lost in the Senate
cigar smoking, poker playing, moonshine drinking political croonies of Harding
Secretary of the Interior, he illegally sold off Fed oil reserves [in Teapot Dome, Wyoming & Elk Hills, Ca.] and become the first cabinet member ever convicted of a felony while in office
Attorney General, he took bribes from those seeking to escape prosectuion on prohibition charges
head of the veteran breau embezzled about 250 million in fed fund
Calvin Coolidge's Term
Collidge, The Man
taciturn, reticent, like Harding: passive, laissez faire, unlike Harding:integrity beyond reproach
Collidge, The Theme
"The business of America is business" "The man who buils a faactory buils a temple, the man who works there worships there, and to each is due, not scorns and blame, but reverence and praise."
Immigration Act of 1924 (National Origins Act)
(C) immigration restriction based on 2% of the 1890 census
Why fed will agencies pursue policies favorable to business?
Because they will come under the control of Republicans appointed by the executive branch in Coolidge admin.
(C) passed over Coolidge's veto, it credited WWI veterans with "adjusted service certificates" = to a dollar per day served in US and 1.25 per day served overseas, up to specified limits.
Farm Relief Vetoes
(C) "Gov't price fixing, once started, has alike no justice and no end. It is an economic folly from which this country has every right to be spared" Coolidge response to McNary-Haugen Bill
Herbert Hoover's Term
Hoover, The Man
orphaned as a youth, later a self-made millionaire via a career as a mining engineer
Election of 1928
third of three Republican landslide election victories, an issue in the 1928 election was Democrat challenger Al Smith's religion [a catholic, many saw his candidacy as a threat that the Pope would be runnin the nation if Smith won]
Hoover, The Theme
"We won challenged with a..choice between the American system of ragged individualism and a European philosophy of diametrically opposed doctrines-doctrines of paternalism and state socialism. The acceptance of these ideas would have meant the destruction of self-gov't through centralization..[and] the undermining of the individual initiative and eterprise through which our ppl have grown to unparallel greatness."
Domestic of Hoover
(Harding Admin) in July 1921, Harding was summoned off a golf course near the home of his friend NJ Sen Joseph Frelinghuysen, The Pres went to the Sen's home to sign a document-the formal cessation of hostility between US and Germany-and returned quickly to the links. Thus, Great War officially done for America.
Washington Naval Conference
(Harding Admin) Goal: US, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, at the invitation of Charles Evans Hughes (Hardings Secretary of State) get together to discuss navy arms limitations and Asian affairs
Five Power Pact
committed US, Britain, France, Japan, and Italy to end new construction of war capital [heavy] ships, to scrap or "mothball" some ships to maintain a 5:5:3:1.67:1.67 ratio for tonnage of capital ships in order of the nations listed. (not fully appreciated at time that this treaty gave Japan naval superiority in the Pacific)
Four Power Pact
bound the US, Britain, France, Japan, to respect each other's possessions in the Pacific and to confer in the event of disputes or aggressiong in the area.
French foreign minister, Aristide Briand, proposed a treaty with the US. Frank Kellogg, Coolidge's Secretary of State, suggested that US sign this proposal. In 1928, 62 nations signed the treaty.
Latin American Relations
control of the approaches to the Panama Canal resulted in military ocupation, for verying periods, in Nicaragua, Domincian Republic and Haiti. Relations with Nicaragua were particularly tense. in 1925, contingents of Marines were used to fight rebel leader Augusto Sandino. Eventually, with American aid, Anastasio Somoza will take contol of the nation in 1933. The Somoze family will control the nation, as a a dictatorship, until 1979.
The Stimson Doctrine
(Hoover Admin) Henry L. Stimson, Hoovers Sec of State, in response to Japan's invasion of Manchura-the Us refused to recognize any territorial changes brought about by Japanese aggression