This early 16th century type of Italian secular song is strophic with refrains, in four-part homophonic texture with melody in the upper voice, has simple diatonic harmonies, syllabic setting of text and catchy rhythmic patterns.
This early 16th century type of Italian song is performed at semipublic gatherings and is religious and devotional.
This 14th century Italian poet sparked a Renaissance movement during which the poet's sonnets and other poems were analyzed, discussed, edited and imitated.
Concerto delle donne
This chamber ensemble of professional female singers served at the court of Ferrara. Their performances illustrated virtuoso techniques such as florid runs, trills, use of dynamics and vocal color.
This leading madrigal composer of mid-century expanded the madrigal to five voices and used chromaticism as part of the humanistic revival of ancient Greek musical thought.
These are word painting devices which evoke the meaning of individual words or phrases with a musical image.
This Italian composer not only explored chromatic passages in his madrigals, wrote a treatise L'antica musica ridotta alla moderna prattica (Ancient Music Adapted to Modern Practice) but also created an arcicembalo and arciorgano, a harpsichord and an organ that divided the scale into quarter tones.
This madrigalist served at the court of Ferrara where he became a master at improvising on chromatic-enharmonic keyboards and the composer for concerto delle donne.
This scandalous aristocrat was able to publish his works in which he dramatized the poetry through sharp contrasts between diatonic and chromatic passages, chordal and imitative textures, and slow- and fast-moving rhythmic motives.
This madrigalist demonstrated evidence of an emerging new style which included declamatory melodies, common in later recitative with frequent duets over harmonic support, free use of dissonances and written-out embellishments.
This collection of Italian madrigals translated into English was published by Nicholas Yonge in 1588.
This prolific English composer wrote madrigals, canzonets and ballets based on Italian models. He published a collection of English madrigals called the Triumphes of Oriana.
The lute part was written in this notation telling the player where to place fingers on the strings rather than indicating pitch.
This composer's madrigal Il bianco e dolce cigno (The white and sweet swan) is among the most famous of the early madrigals. The composer uses word painting and metaphorical references to "the little death."
Toward the end of the century, this Italian native was the most prolific of his time, composing over four hundred madrigals, becoming the master of word painting.
Similar in style to the frottola and villancico, with the melody in the top voice and simple harmony, his chansons were very popular and even appeared in paintings.
These Spanish songs were intended for the elite class, the texts were rustic and popular in style. The music was short, strophic, syllabic, and mostly homophonic.
He was the first Spanish playwright and the leading composer of secular songs.