Challenge 1 Philosophy

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For challenge 1 student's philosophy exams, this includes all philosophers, their dates, places, and main ideas.

Democritus

Atom theroy-world is composed of small units of matter

Socrates

"Man is measure of all things"

Plato

Believed in immortal soul but limited number of forms

Aristotle

Studied nature, believed that man has innate reasoning

Jesus

God's son, brought everlasting forgiveness

Augustine

Christianized Plato's ideas, City of God, Salvation through God

Aquinas

Christianized Aristotle's ideas

Luther

Reformer monk broke Catholic church, translated Bible

Erasmus

Reformer monk didn't break with Catholic church

Hobbes

He was a materialist. Believed even the soul was composed of substance

Descartes

"I think, therefore I am", system builder, dualism

Spinoza

Historical-critical view of the Bible. "In the light of eternity"

Locke

Believed in primary and secondary qualities, as well as natural rights

Hume

Empiricist, complex ideas, "law of causation"

Berkeley

Empiricist, "We exist only in the mind of God"

Kant

certain factors in mind influence perception of the world-time, space, and law of causality

Hegel

Method of understanding history, "world's spirit is developing"

Kierkegaard

Founded existentialism

Marx

Historical-materialist, economic force caused change in history

Darwin

Contradicts creation story in Bible, evolution

Freud

Mind made of three parts-id, ego, and superego. Developed dream theory.

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