Chapter 10-13 Vocabulary

64 terms by keithlk 

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Heredity

the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next.

Trait

a distinguishing feature of your personal nature.

Genetics

the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms.

Gamete

a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.

Fertilization

process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.

Zygote

the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell).

Pollination

transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant.

Hybrid

an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock.

Allele

one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits.

Dominant

trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present.

Recessive

The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.

Law of Segregation

members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair.

Phenotype

what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype.

Genotype

the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism.

Homozygous

having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci.

Heterozygous

having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci.

Law of Independent Assortment

each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random.

Diploid

an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number.

Haploid

an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes.

Homologous Chromosome

one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent.

Meiosis

cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms.

Sperm

the male reproductive cell.

Egg

Female sex cell.

Sexual Reproduction

process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism.

Crossing Over

the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis.

Genetic Recombination

the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents.

Nondisjunction

meiosis in which there is a failure of paired homologous chromosomes to separate.

Nitrogenous Base

an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA.

Double Helix

a pair of parallel helixes intertwined about a common axis.

DNA Replication

the process of making a copy of DNA.

Messenger RNA

the template for protein synthesis.

Ribosomal RNA

type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.

Transfer RNA

type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.

Transcription

the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into the RNA.

Codon

a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid.

Translation

the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm.

Mutation

any event that changes genetic structure.

Point Mutation

a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene.

Frameshift Mutation

mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide.

Chromosomal Mutation

any event that changes genetic structure.

Mutagen

any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation.

Pedigree

the descendants of one individual.

Carrier

a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others.

Fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

Incomplete Dominance

one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele.

Codominant Allele

both alleles are equally expressed.

Multiple Allele

presence of more than two alleles for a genetic trait.

Autosome

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.

Sex Chromosome

a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual.

Sex-linked Trait

a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans.

Polygenic Inheritance

combined effect of two or more genes on a single character.

Karyotype

the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes).

Inbreeding

the act of mating closely related individuals.

Test Cross

the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype.

Genetic Engineering

the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.

Recombinant DNA

genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms.

Transgenic Organism

organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism.

Restriction Enzyme

any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce restriction fragments.

Vector

a variable quantity that can be resolved into components., any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease.

Plasmid

a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication.

Clone

a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction.

Human Genome

the approximately 35,000-40,000 genes on the 46 human chromosomes.

Linkage Map

A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.

Gene Therapy

The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder.

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