Gram negative bacteria and their diseases

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Bacteroides

Can be involved in abdominal infections, genital infections in women, and wound infections of the skin

Prevotella

•Involved in a number of sinus and ear infections and in almost all periodontal infections
•Also cause gynecological infections, brain abscesses, and abdominal infections

Coxiella burnetii

•Causes Q fever
-Occurs particularly among ranchers, veterinarians, and food handlers
-Can be either acute or chronic

Legionella pneumophila

•Causes Legionnaires' disease
-Results in severe pneumonia
•Immunocompromised individuals are more susceptible (75% mortality)
-Pontiac fever, an influenza-like illness

Francisella tularensis

•Causes the zoonotic disease tularemia
-Spread to humans occurs mainly through the bite of an infected tick or by contact with an infected animal
-The bacteria can spread through unbroken skin and mucous membranes, making it highly infectious
-Tularemia produces symptoms common to other bacterial and viral diseases and may be misdiagnosed

Moraxella

can cause opportunistic infections of the sinuses, bronchi, ears, and lungs

Acinetobacter

-Grows in soil, water, and sewage
-Results in opportunistic infections of the respiratory, urinary, and central nervous systems

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

•Opportunistic pathogen of hospitalized patients receiving broad spectrum antibiotics or immunocompromised patients
•Can colonize almost every organ and system and result in various diseases
•Often infects the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients
-The bacteria form a biofilm that protects them from phagocytosis
-Increases the likelihood of death in these patients

Burkholderia

•Used by farmers to reduce fungal infection of plant crops
•Opportunistic pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients
•Aerobic, flagellated betaproteobacterium

Bordetella pertussis

Causes pertussis, also called whopping cough

Brucella

Causes brucellosis

Bartonella quintana

Trench fever

Haemophilus influenza

-Was the most common form of meningitis in infants prior to the use of an effective vaccine
-Can cause a number of other diseases in young children -epiglottitis

Haemophilus aegyptius

Brazilian purpuric fever

Haemophilus

-Causes a sexually transmitted disease
-Results in the formation of a genital ulcer called a chancroid

Pasteurella

•Most cases produce localized inflammation and swelling of the lymph nodes at the site of infection

Yersinia enterocolitica

•Acquired via consumption of food or water contaminated with animal feces
•Causes inflammation of the intestinal tract

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

but produces a less severe intestinal inflammation

Yersinia pestis

•Bubonic plague -characterized by high fever and swollen, painful lymph nodes called buboes
-Bacteremia plus contamination with clostridium result in development of DIC, subcutaneous hemorrhaging, and necrosis develop -Black Death
•Pneumonic plague-rapidly developing infection of the lungs

Shigella

•Cause a severe form of dysentery called shigellosis

Salmonella typhi

•Causes typhoid fever
•Bacteria from the gall bladder can reinfect the intestines, producing gastroenteritis and a recurrence of bacteremia
•In some patients the bacteria ulcerate and perforate the intestinal wall causing peritonitis

S. typhimurium

causes salmonellosis

Morganella, Providencia,and Edwardsiella

-Cause nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients
-Primarily involved in urinary tract infections

Proteus

•Can cause urinary tract infections in patients with long-term urinary catheters
•Infection-induced kidney stones can develop

Serratia

•Can grow on catheters, in saline solutions, and other hospital supplies
•Can cause life-threatening opportunistic infections in the urinary and respiratory tracts of immunocompromised patients

Klebsiella

•Can cause opportunistic infections
•Produce a prominent capsule (biggest capsule) that protect the bacteria from phagocytosis
•K.pneumoniae is the most commonly isolated pathogenic species
-Causes pneumonia (bloody sputum)
-May be involved in bacteremia, meningitis, wound infections, UTIs

Neisseria meningitides

-Can produce blood coagulation and the formation of minute hemorrhagic lesions -petechiae
•Most common cause of meningitis in individuals under 20

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