Urine formation begins with the filtration of fluid from a spheroid capillary bed called the what?
Excessive ADH secretion is most likely to produce what?
A realistic value for ___ is about 105-125 mL/day.
glomerular filtration rate
Water that is chemically synthesized by the body is called ___ to distinguish it from ingested water.
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by what?
the proximal convoluted tube (PCT)
___ is a process in which the tubules remove wastes from the blood and add them to the tubular fluid (primarily H or bicarbonate).
Voluntary control over urination employs what?
the external urinary sphincter
Each kidney has one million or more functional units called what?
The pH of systemic arterial blood is normally what?
The ___ apparatus monitors the composition and concentration of the tubular fluid and adjusts the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
Blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusually high compared to other capillaries because the diameter of the ___ is greater than that of the ___.
afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole
People who have lost a lot of blood often feel intensely thirsty. This is b/c what is produced?
angiotensin II (stimulates the thirst center)
___ is a hormone that regulates sodium reabsorption by the distal convoluted tube (DCT).
Name 4 parts of renal corpuscle.
glomerular capillaries, glomerular capsule, pedicels, fenestrations
The ___ reflex involuntarily empties the bladder unless one consciously suppresses urination.
The first step leading to angiotensin II production is the secretion of ___ by the kidneys.
The ___ reabsorbs the same amount of water regardless of the body's state of hydration.
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Blood plasma has an osmolarity of about ___ mOsm/L.
The blood vessels of the renal medulla that run alongside the nephron loops (Loop of Henle) are what?
the vasa recta
The most abundant nitrogenous waste of the blood is what?
___ is a hormone that regulates water permeability of the collecting duct.
Urine normally contains does not contain what?
____ is not part of a renal corpuscle.
Urine is conveyed from the kidney to the bladder by a tube called the ___.
The cells of the distal convoluted tubule in contact with the afferent arteriole are what?
the mascula densa
A lung disease that interferes with the pulmonary gas exchange can be expected to lead to what?
____ is not part of a nephron.
There is one ___ for each nephron.
A blood pH below 7.35 is called what?
___ is not considered an excretion.