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In their struggles for independence, African and Asian nationalists relied mainly on

peaceful mass demonstrations, economic boycotts, and constitutional maneuvers.

Where did violence in the process of decolonization most often occur?

in colonial societies with settler populations

What made colonial regimes particularly vulnerable to challenges from within?

the fact that colonial governments were built in collaboration with indigenous elite groups

What country's nationalist movement pioneered patterns of decolonization and European retreat?

India

In 1885, regional associations of Western-educated Indians came together to form the

Indian National Congress Party.

Which of the following statements concerning the position of the early Congress Party is most accurate?

It was loyal to the British rulers and primarily concerned with interests of the Indian elite.

7) By the last years of the nineteenth century, the Congress Party was appealing to

investors and businessmen.

8) A large portion of the Government of India's budget went to all of the following EXCEPT

high salaries and pensions of British administrators.

9) Which of the following was NOT an Indian cash crop?

Curry

10) Who was the first Indian leader with a genuine mass following?

B. G. Tilak

11) The radical wing of the Congress Party under B. G. Tilak proposed what formula as the basis for the party's political program?

an appeal to conservative Hinduism, including boycotts of British goods, full independence, use of Hindu festivals as opportunities for rallies, opposition to women's education

12) Where was the terrorist movement most concentrated in India before World War I?

Bengal

13) What British reform in 1909 provided educated Indians with expanded opportunities both to elect and to serve on local and all-India legislative councils?

the Morley-Minto Reforms

14) Which of the following statements concerning the leadership of the decolonization movement in India just prior to World War I is most correct?

Tilak's removal and the repression campaigns against terrorists, along with British reforms, strengthened the hands of the Western-educated moderates in Congress.

15) Egypt is the one country in the Afro-Asian world in which

the emergence of nationalism preceded European conquest and domination.

16) The British first occupied Egypt following the Orabi revolt in

1882.

17) British occupation of Egypt meant double colonization, by the British and by

the Turks.

18) What British political officer dominated government policy in Egypt after 1882 and pushed for economic reforms intended to reduce the Khedival debt?

Lord Cromer

19) Which of the following groups did NOT benefit from the British economic reforms in Egypt?

the peasants

20) What group within Egypt took up the cause of national independence and decolonization?

sons of the effendi

21) Prior to World War I, what was the primary difference between Egyptian and the Indian nationalist movements?

In India a single political party dominated the nationalist movement, but in Egypt a variety of rival parties proliferated.

22) By 1913, the British

granted a constitution to Egyptian nationalists.

23) What was the Dinshawai incident?

British officers hunting pigeons accidentally shot the wife of a Muslim prayer leader and were subsequently assaulted.

24) What was the outcome of the Dinshawai incident in Egypt?

Mass support, including the emergence of ayan allegiance, for the national cause grew in Egypt.

25) World War I had which of the following effects on India?

Contrary to long-standing colonial policy, the British encouraged expansion of industrial production in India.

26) Which of the following did NOT occur as a result of European participation in World War I?

The British and French made promises regarding post-war decolonization that they adhered to strictly.

27) Shortly after the outbreak of World War L Indian nationalist leaders such as Gandhi and Tilak

Toured India selling war bonds to finance the war effort

28) What reforms offered in 1919 in India increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all- India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries?

the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms

29) The Rowlatt Act of 1919

placed severe restrictions on key Indian civil rights.

30) Which of the following statements concerning M. K. Gandhi is most accurate?

He was a Westem-educated lawyer who combined a rather astute understanding of the British colonizers with the attributes of a traditional Hindu holy man.

31) Gandhi's advocacy of boycotts, strikes, non-cooperation, and mass demonstrations was called

satyagraha.

32) What Gandhi's leadership gave to the Congress Party that it had previously lacked was

a "holy man" image that attracted the masses to the nationalist movement.

33) What was the cause of the foundation o the Muslim League in 1906

It represented the fears among some Muslims of Hindu domination and religious conservatism

34) In 1931, Gandhi renewed his civil disobedience to the British administration of India with

the Salt March.

35) In the Government of India Act of 1935, the British

turned the provincial governments over to Indian leaders who were chosen by an expanded electorate.

36) Despite their promises of Arab independence, Britain and France created a number of in the Middle East under the auspices of the League of Nations.

mandates

37) Zionism refers to

Jewish aspirations to return to an ancient homeland in Palestine.

38) One of the founders of the World Zionist Organization in 1897 was the Austrian journalist,

Theodor Herzl.

39) What occurred in Egypt in the aftermath of World War I?

When the representatives at Versailles refused to hear an Egyptian group sent to argue for self determination, a rebellion broke out in Egypt.

40) After World War I the Egyptian nationalist movement was centralized in the Wafd Party under

Sa'd Zaghlul.

41) Which of the following statements concerning the nationalist governments of Egypt after the British withdrawal in 1936 is most accurate?

The nationalist party governments did little to relieve the misery of the Egyptian peasantry and used the opportunity to rule for personal enrichment.

42) Which of the following statements concerning the early nationalist movements of Africa is most accurate?

French-speaking west Africans tended to concentrate their efforts at political representation within their colonies.

43) What document during World War II included a clause that recognized the "right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live?"

the Atlantic Charter

44) How did the Indian Congress Party and nationalist leaders respond to British participation in World War 11?

Congress opposed the war effort and its leaders were jailed, but the Muslim League rallied to the British cause.

45) Of all the nationalist parties in India, the British were most closely allied with

the Muslim League.

46) What was the solution to the division in India between Muslims and Hindus in 1947?

The British decided to divide India into two nations--a Muslim Pakistan and a secular, but Hindu-dominated, India.

47) Which of the following nations achieved independence without violence?

India

48) What radical African leader helped to achieve independence in Ghana?

Kwame Nkrumah

49) By what decade had the European colonization of most of black Africa come to an end?

1960s

50) In what type of African colonies was the process of decolonization most violent?

those with large numbers of white settlers

51) Failure of the British to deal with the leader of the largest nationalist party, Jomo Kenyatta, led to a violent and prolonged revolution in

Kenya.

52) Which of the following statements concerning the Algerian independence movement is most accurate?

Decolonization in Algeria was violent, as white settlers resisted independence through the OAS supported by powerful elements within the French military.

53) In what nation were white settlers able to retain their position of supremacy?

South Africa

54) The Afrikaner National Party in South Africa established a rigid system of racial segregation called

apartheid.

55) Which of the following statements concerning Zionism following World War II is most accurate?

Zionists turned to violent attempts to eject the British from Palestine in response to the British attempts to limit immigration to the Middle East.

56) Which of the following statements concerning the creation of the state of Israel in 1948 is NOT correct?

The United States supported the creation of Israel in 1948, but the Soviet Union opposed its formation.

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