Hypo/Hyper Function of the Endocrine System

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Adenohypophysis

anterior portion of the pituitary gland
derived from ectoderm growing up from the oral cavity of the fetus
makes up about 80% of the gland
functions in production and storage of hormones

Neurohypophysis

posterior portion of the pituitary gland
derived from the brain and is connected to the hypothalamus
makes up about 20% of the gland
functions in the storage of hormones

Hypopituitarism

the deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones
can be caused by tumor, infarction, surgery, radiation, trauma, disease, or genetic syndromes

Panhypopituitarism

the deficiency of all of the pituitary hormones

Craniopharyngioma

a benign cystic pituitary tumor
congenital lesion
causes pituitary hormone deficiencies by crowding out pituitary cells

Diabetes Insipidus

deficiency of vasopressin
caused by gene defect, trauma, or tumor
symptoms are constant urination and excessive thirst

ACTH

adrenocorticotropin hormone or "corticotropin"
secreted by the anterior pituitary
regulates the function of the adrenal hormones

Pituitary Adenoma

tumors that occur within the pituitary gland

Non-toxic Goiter

an enlarged thyroid that is not hypo or hyper functioning
seen in adolescence, pregnancy, and some cases of viral/autoimmune thyroiditis

Hashimoto Thyroiditis

an autoimmune thyroid disease
lymphocyte destruction
circulating antibodies to thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin
lymphocytic infiltrates, gland destruction, metaplasia of follicular epithelial cells

PTH

parathyroid hormone
secreted by the parathyroid glands
controls calcium metabolism

Prolactin

secreted by anterior pituitary
stimulated production and secretion of breastmilk

Prolactinoma

benign pituitary tumor of lactotrophs
secreted excess prolactin
symptoms are galatorrhea, headache, impotence, and infertility

Hypothyroidism

underproduction of thyroid hormones
may occur with or without goiter
caused by congenital lesions, hashimoto thyroiditis, durgery, viruses, or drugs (Lithium)
symptoms are bradycardia, constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, and edema of the face, hands, and feet

Hyperthyroidism

overproduction of thyroid hormone
usually occurs with goiter
most common is Grave's Disease (autoimmune disease)
enlarged gland with hyperplastic and hypervascular appearance
symptoms are tachycardia, diarrhea, heat intolerance, restlessness, irritability, the creepy eyes

Hypoparathyroidism

caused by decreased PTH secretion that leads to low calcium
seizures, tingling, cramps, stridor
caused by surgery, autoimmune diseases, and congenital syndromes of absence of the parathyroid glands

Hyperparathyroidism

caused by excessive PTH production that leads to high calcium
kidney and pancreatic stones, psychiatric illness, abdominal pain ("stones, moans, and groans")
caused by benign tumors, cancer, or hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands

TSH

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
secreted by the anterior pituitary
acts on the thyroid hormones (growth factors, etc.)

Addison's Disease

adrenal cortex insufficiency due to autoimmunity, infection, or infarction
symptoms are hypoglycemia, shock, low sodium, high potassium
life threatening and must be treated with glucocorticoids

Cushing Syndrome

overproduction of adrenal cortex hormones (mostly cortisol)
caused by adrenal tumors, overproduction of ACTH by the pituitary gland, or by taking large doses of prednisone
symptoms are an obese trunk with thin limbs, moon faces, purple striae on the abdomen, thinning skin, osteoporosis, the "buffalo bump" dorsal fat pad, and hypertension

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

a genetic disease in which the person is midding an enzyme in the adrenal cortex pathway
causes cortisol deficiency, and overproduction of androgens
results in male like genitalia in baby girls

APS

autoimmune polyglandular syndromes
combination of several endocrine difficultiues
autoimmune disease that are the result of destruction of endocrine glands by antibodies or lymphocytic damage
result in hypofunction of endocrine glands

APS I

Addison Disease
Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
Hypoparathyroidism

APS II

Addison Disease
Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Pernicious Anemia
Type I Diabetes Mellitus

APS III

type I Diabetes Mellitus
Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

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