Pyschology -term one

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33 terms

Classical Conditiong

Conditioning means learning. It is the focus of behaviourism. Classical conditioning is associating one thing with another. It is involuntary. It concerns the association between stimuli and responses. Classical conditioning occurs when we learn that two things happen together, eg dogs associating a bell with being served food, and they salivate involuntary. Ivan Pavlov introduced the concept of classical conditioning.

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning explains how people learn behaviour. It is Voluntary. It focuses on behaviours and their consequence, which determine the likliness of the behaviour being repeated depending on whether the consequence is negative or positive. The Behaviour and Consequence must happen close enough together in time for learning to occur. BF skinner tested this theory using rats in a box. When the rats pushed a lever they would get a pellet of food and they soon learnt to push the lever voluntarily. The behaviour will stopped if there is no more consequence (extinction).

Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov introduced the concept of classical conditioning and explained how association is established. He used dogs to test his theories. He would ring a bell then present them with food, so that the dogs were conditioned to salivate when they heard the bell as well as when they were presented with food.

Skinner

BF Skinner tested the theory of operant conditioning using rats in a box (skinners box). The rats were placed in the box and every time they pressed a lever inside a pelet of food would drop inside the box. The rats soon learnt to voluntarily press the lever because that behaviour was reinforced.

ABC

Antecedente, Behaviour, Consequence. Relates to operant conditioning. The antecedent is an event that occurs immediately prior to the behavior, causing the beahviour to happen. There is the behaviour itself and then the consequence which is the reinforcing outcome of the event.

Positive reinforcer

If a behaviour is rewarded with a positive consequence it means that it is likely the behaviour will be repeated. Relates to operant conditioning.

Negative Reinforcer

If a behaviour is reinforced with a negative consequence it means that the behaviour is not likely to be repeated. Relates to operant conditioning.

Conditioned Stimulus

A stimulus that has been associated with an unconditioned stimulus resulting in a conditioned response. Realtes to classical conditioning.

Conditioned Response

A response that has been involuntarily learnt and associated with a unconditioned stimulus. Relates to classical conditioning.

Visual Cliff

An experiment carried out by Gibson and Walk in 1960. They put a baby on the wooden side of a tabletop - the other half was glass. Because the babies have no depth perception they thought that crawling to the glass would mean they would fall off the table. It shows that the babies rely more on their sense of sight than touch. This is an example of how we make sense of the world.

Conservation

Occurs in the concrete operational stage (7-11 years) of learning proposed by Piaget. It is part of Piaget's theory of cognitive development, to logically determine that a certain quantity will remain the same despite adjustment of the container, shape, or apparent size.

Egocentrism

When one holds perspectives oriented to oneself. Occurs in children going through pre-operational stage (2-7 years)

Moral Dilemma

Kohlbergs theory. These dilemmas were posed to his sibjects and they were asked questions to probe their reasons for recommneding a specific course of action. Making decisions causes great mental conflict.

Gibson and Walk

Did 'Visual cliff' experiment in 1960 to study babies depth perception.

Kohlberg

Formed the theory of moral development, and also posed moral dilemmas. There were 3 levels of moral development with two stages to each level explaining how we develop morals.

Piaget

Studied intellectual development in children. Thought that in children the type of thinking changes rather than just acquiring more knowledge. cognitive deveolpment takes place due to maturation. Came up with four stages of learning for children up to 11-13.

Sensori-motor

First of Piagets four developmental stages. Occurs in children 0-2 years old. Knowledge of what can be sensed and what can be done. Object permanence develops. Early movements are uncoordinated.

Pre-operational

Second of Piagets four developmental stages. Occurs in children 2-7 years old. Involves using fantasy and games to learn. Use of symbols, like language. Rules are understood but lack logic. Thought guided externally. Holds perspectives oriented to oneself.

Concrete Operational

Third of Piagets four developmental stages. Occurs in children 7-11 years old. Rules are logical but with concrete examples. Cant cope with hypothetical problems. Seriation is developed.

Formal Operational

Fourth and last of Piagets four developmental stages. Occurs in children 11 years and above. Thought is abstract and one can consider multiple viewpoints. Full comprehension and reasoning capacity developed.

Clustering

Used to organize related information into groups. It is catergorized because then it is easiet to remember and recall.

Frontal Lobe

Setting goals, feeling emotions, planning

Parietal Lobe

Feeling softness and hardness, temperature, pressure, activates muscles.

Temporal Lobe

Recognizes faces, sounds, objects. Imporant for making memories.

Occipital Lobe

Interprets everything you see.

Cerebellum

Maintains balance and coordination. Helps you walk and move.

Brain Stem

Breathing, eating, heartbeat.

Left Brain

Logical, verbal, able to deal with things in sequence. Processes words and finds meaning.

Right Brain

Emotionally intuitive and expressions, skilled at spacial relations and able to deal with things all at once. Appreciates humour, imagery and emotional content.

Sensory memory

The earliest stage of memory. Sensory information from the enviroment gets stored for no more than a few seconds. Any aspects of this memory that pay attention to is allowed to pass into the next stage of memory (short term memory)

Short-Term memory

Information we are currently aware of or are thinking about. When sensory memories are paid attention to then they are formed into short-term memory. Stored for approx 20-30 seconds. Attending to this information allows it to pass into long term memory.

Long-Term memory

Refers to the continuing storage of information. The information stored in long term memory is mostly outsude our awareness but the information can be recalled to be used, some things more easily than others.

Semantic network model

Suggests than certain triggers activate memorys. A memory of a specific place might activate other memories about related things that have occured in that place, eg Going to a beach where you spent your childhood summer would bring back memories of that summer.

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