ch 10 nervous system pt 1

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the cytoplasmic extensions that together with the cell body, provide the main receptive surfaces for neurons is?

dendrites

masses of myelinated nerve fibers apper what color?

white

name the types of neuroglial cell 4

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial, ependyma

Astrocytes define

connects neurons to blood vessels and provides growth factors

oligodendrocytes define

produces mylenin

microglial define

support neurons and phagocytize

ependyma define

lines ventricles of the brain

when a nerve fiber is polarized the concentration of ________ ion is higher on the outside and the concentration of ______ ion is higher on the inside

potasium;sodium

saltatory conduction in myelinated neuron is _______
(faster/slower) in terms of conduction compared to the unmyelinated neuron.

Faster

what produces myelin in the brain and spinal cord?

oligodendrocytes

which neurotransmitter functions to relieve pain sensations?

beta-endorphin

which ions pass through cell membranes most readily?

potassium

if a resting potential becomes more negative, the membrane is said to be?

hyperpolarizing

when an action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the contents of the vesicles are released in response to the presence of _____ ions

calcium?

if a neuron receives a series of stimuli whose effect is excitatory but subthreshold, the meuron is more excitable to incoming stimulation than before and is said to be?

facilitated

ischemic cell change is caused by a lack of ____ gas?

oxygen

an infants responses to stimuli are coarse and undifferentiated because its nerve fibers are not yet _____?

mylinated

role of calcium ions in action potential?

calcium ions cause potassium channels to close

three general functions of the nervous system are?

integrative, motor, sensory

neurons are _______, whereas neurogical cells are ________

nerve cells; structural and functional units of the nervous system

Myelin is defined as ______

fatty material that forms a sheath like covering around certain nerve fibers

a myelinated nerve fiber is characterized by being ______, whereas an unmyelinated nerve fiber is characterized by being _______

white, and composing the white matter of the brain and spinal cord; gray and composing the gray matter of the brain an spinal cord

action potentials are related to nerve impulses because propagation of action potential along the fiber constitutes a ______ impulse

nerve

if the body had a low calcium level then this could affect the release of neurotransmitters by causing a _______ in the amount released from the synaptic knob.

decrease

the process of transmitting a nerve impulse from one neuron to another involves a

nerve impulse stimulating presynaptic axons to release a neurotransmitter into a synaptic cleft

the cells within the nervous system that fill spaces and give support to neurons are called _____ ______

neurogical cells

sheaths of ______ cells often enclose the larger axons outside of the brain and spinal cord

myelin

the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a polarized nerve cell membrane is called the _____ ______

membrane potential

a nerve impulse consists of a wave of ____ ______ moving away from a point of stimulation

action potentials

a _____ is the junction between the parts of two neurons

synapse

body parts such as muscles and glands that are capable of responding to nerve impulses are called ______

effectors?

if a neurotransmitter causes a cell membrane to become hyperpolarized and an action potential is less likely to occur the change is called _____ ______ ______

local potential change

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