A&PII L7

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Kidneys & Urinary System

An obstruction in the afferent arteriole would reduce the flow of blood into the

glomerulus

Blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter and leave the kidney at the

hilum

Angiotensin II does what?

stimulates aldosterone secretion.

What helps regulate absorption of calcium ions?

Vitamin D

The juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes

renin

The renal corpuscle connects to the

proximal convoluted tubule

Water is reabsorbed by ____________.

osmosis

What enzyme helps regulate blood pressure?

renin

Most reabsorption occurs in the ________________.

proximal convoluted tubule

The functional/structural unit of the kidney is a

nephron

Which of the following functions would not be performed by the kidney?

urine storage

larger blood vessel that leads into the glomerulus

afferent arterioles

consist of glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

renal corpuscle

portions of a nephron leading away from the glomerulus consisting of tubules

renal tubule

highly coiled portion of the renal tubule

proximal convoluted tubule

descending and acending limbs of the nephron loop

loop of Henle

filtering unit of a tangled cluster of blood capillaries

glomerulus

shorter and straighter coiled region that empties into a collecting duct

distal convoluted tubule

saclike structure that surrounds the glomerulus

Bowman's capsule

formed from merging distal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex

collecting duct

blood vessel that leaves out of the glomerulus

efferent arterioles

What muscle is found in the bladder wall that aids in urination?

detrusor

Sodium ion reabsorption occurs by ____________.

active transport

contains nephrons

kidney

perstaltic waves force urine to the bladder

ureter

reddish-brown, bean shaped organ

kidney

secrete erythropoietin

kidney

tubular organ about 25 cm long

ureter

regulate the volume, composition, and pH of body fluids

kidney

secrete the enzyme renin

kidney

different in males and females

urethra

form urine

kidney

conveys urine from bladder to outside

urethra

located retroperitoneally on either side of vertebral column against the posterior wall

kidney

hollow, distensible, muscular organ that stores urine

urinary bladder

removes metabolic waste from the blood

kidney

T/F: The main function of the nephron is to remove waste from the blood in the form of urine.

True

T/F: The micturition reflex is coordinated by neurons in the spinal cord

True

What are the two parts of a nephron?

renal corpuscle and renal tubule

T/F: A podocyte is a structure located in the arteriolar walls near the glomerulus that regulates renal blood flow.

False

As the osmotic pressure in the glomerulus increases, filtration ____________.

decreases

T/F: The left kidney lies slightly lower than the right one.

False

What 3 steps are involved in urine formation?

glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, tubular reabsorption

T/F: The kidneys extend from T10 to L2

False

Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by _____________.

active transport

What is the process by which urine is expelled from the bladder?

micturition

1st subdivision of renal pelvis into 2 or 3 tubes

major calyx

fibrous membrane surrounding the cortex which helps maintain shape and protects the kidney

renal capsule

hollow chamber on medial side of kidney

renal sinus

apex of renal pyramids containing the openings in which collecting duct empties into minor calyx

renal papillae

funnel shaped sac formed from the expanded end of a ureter

renal pelvis

forms shell around the medulla and dips between the renal pyramids

renal cortex

2nd division of renal pelvis into 8-14 tubes

minor calyx

inner kidney region consisting of renal pyramids

renal medulla

conical masses of tissue

renal pyramids

tissues of renal cortex located between renal pyramids

renal column

Trace the path of a red blood cell from the renal artery to the glomerulus: 1. interlobar artery 2. interlobular artery 3. arcuate artery 4. afferent arteriole

1,3,2,4

In __________, a person's blood is rerouted across an artifical membrane to clean it and remove substances normally excreted in urine.

hemodialysis

Urine is about ______% water.

95

The renal corpuscle consists of

the glomerulus and Bowman's (glomerular) capsule.

What is the product amino acid catabolism in the liver?

urea

What is a product of the metabolism of the purines - adenine and guanine?

uric acid

T/F: ACE converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.

False

Renin converts

angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.

Blood leaves the kidney through the _________ and joins the inferior vena cava.

renal vein

T/F: The medulla triggers thirst.

False

Proteins are reabsorbed by ____________.

endocytosis

What hormone helps control the rate of red blood cell formation?

erythropoietin

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