← CHEM 102: Exam 3, part 4 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All hard • atomic structures associated with ___ acids and bases are rigid and impenetrable. ionic, high • Hard acids bind to hard bases to give ___ complexes. Hard acids have a ___ positive charge. lower, polarize soft acids and bases typically have ___ oxidization states than hard acids and bases. They also have larger atomic radii, are more deformable, and are easy to ___ and oxidize. EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) ___ is polydentate, meaning it can bind through two or more donor sites to a metal. en Each (__) ligand is bidentate so it binds twice, meaning [Co[en]3]3+ has a coordination number of 6. nickel, platinum a square planar structure has a metal that is a ___ or a ___ at its center. nitro, nitrato, nitrito ○ NO2 is ___ ○ NO3 is ___ ○ ONO is ___ (bound through the oxygen). dextrorotary, levorotary • Using a polarimeter and optical isomers, we can see whether the polarized light turns to the left or to the right (measuring its rotation). ○ Called D if the light turns to the left. (d) is ___ ○ Called L if it turns to the right. (l) is ___ chiral Stereoisomers include optical isomers, which are non-superimposable images described as ___ (e.g. my hands) inner, outer • ___ shell hybridization - d2sp3 (we fill two in 3d, then 4s, then 4p). • ___ shell hybridization - sp3d2 (we fill 4s, then 4p, then two in 4d) halogens, hydroxides ___ and ___ are small (weak) field splitter ligands. They split the d orbitals to a lesser extent than the large field splitters (there's not as big a gap between the orbitals b/c they're not split as much. thus less pairing occurs). Water can be either. doped Some semi conductors can be "___" to give it the certain characteristics/properties you want it to have. elemental Si, Ge, and Sn are examples of ___ semi conductors V to make a semi-conducting compound, elements from group III and group ___ combine. II to make a semi-conducting compound, elements from group ___ and group VI combine. 8 Face centered have 4 atoms, and 4 additional interior atoms in each of the holes. They have _ atoms total of the same element. zinc In a zinc-blend semi-conductor compound (Zn-S), the ___ is face centered cubic and the S is in the tetrahedral holes. p aluminum is a _-type dopant. electron hole aluminum (group 13)... • Has only three valence electrons, so it has an ___ ___. • Is a positive charge carrier (a p-type dopant) • You add an acceptor impurity intrinsic silicon (group 14)... • 4 s and 2 p. • ___ electrons (b/c we have silicon atoms in the 4 tetrahedral holes). 4 valence electrons • Metallic semi conductor negative charge carrier phosphorus (group 15)... • n-type dopant • Has 5 valence electrons, so it's a conductive-electron or a ___ (electron) ___ ___. • You add a donor impurity 9 how many valence electrons are there in this n-type semiconductor? Si = [Ne]3s(2)3p(2) P = [Ne] 3s(2)3p(3) insulator an ___ has an energy gap b/tw the conduction band and the valence band greater than 2. it doesn't get hot, but it is a thermal conductor. semi-conductor a ___ has an energy gap b/tw the conduction band and the valence band that is between 2 and 0 (e.g. silicon) conductor a ___ has no energy gap b/tw the conduction and valence bands. Metals are a classic example of these. decreases • Conductivity ___ with an increase in temperature. As the metal gets hot, it kind of disrupts the electron flow. metal (and a conductor), insulators concerning band overlap in s and p orbitals... • Sodium, a ___, can have some band OVERLAP. • ___ have a forbidden zone (large energy gap) • Semiconductors have a small energy gap magnesium • Hemes (with iron in the center) and chlorophylls (with ___ in the center) are both porphyrin rings. dry ice solid CO2 is called ___ ___ carbon ___ is the only member of Group 14 that commonly forms multiple bonds. nanogears The Buckminsterfullerene molecule is composed of ___ made of carbon acidic CO is not an ___ oxide nitrous oxide (N2O) laughing gas (official name) phosphorus (p8) the red allotropic form of ___ is used in the striking surfaces of matchbooks and on the sides of boxes of safety matches apatites phosphorus is obtained from ___ by being heated in an electric furnace with carbon and sand. sulfur ○ found in gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) ○ found in natural gas as H2S, SO2 8 S^_, an allotropic form of sulfur, is yellow in color, tasteless, and an odorless solid sulfuric acid (H2SO4) □ World's most important industrial chemical. hydrogen In ion exchange, water passes through a zeolite, an aluminosilicate with a very open structure that can capture ions such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ and exchange them for ___ ions. In a home they don't have zeolites, but they soften hard water by replacing the Mg and Ca with sodium. HCl ___, a compound of the "salt formers" group, is used in various metallurgical (purifying metal) purposes. helium • Below 2 Kelvin, ___ flows without viscosity. It's the only element that demonstrates this property of superfluidity.