## CHAPTER 7 ELECTRICITY

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gumbymelon  on April 7, 2011

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# CHAPTER 7 ELECTRICITY

 Electricitya form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical or thermal effects
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#### Definitions

Electricity a form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical or thermal effects
electrons have a _________ charge negative
an electric current is the flow of electricity along a conductor
a conductor is any substance that easily transmits electricity
an example of a conductor is copper and water
an insulator or nonconductor is a substance that does not easliy transmit electricity
an example of an insulator is rubber, silk, wood, glass, cement
complete circuit is the path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors and back to its origional source
direct current (DC) is a constanmt, evenflowing current that travels in one direction
converter an apperatus that changes DC to AC
alternating current (AC) is a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction, then in the opposite direction.
how fast does AC occur 60 times per second
a rectifier is an apparatus that changes AC to DC
volt = the unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes the flow of electrons
amp = the unit that measures the strength of an electric current
milliampere = 1/1000 of an ampere
ohm = the unit that measures resistance of an electric current
watt = a measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second
kilowatt = 1000 watts
fuse is a special device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit
a curcuit breaker is a switch that automatically inturrupts or shuts off an electric current at the first indication of overload
all electrical appliences must have at least ___ connections 2
Underwriters Laboratory certifies the safety of electrical devices
for additional ground some plugs have what? a third connection
electrical facial treatments are known as electotherapy
electrotheraphy treatmensta are also known as modalities
a electrode is an applicator for directing the electric current from the machiene to the clients skin
an anode is a positive electrode
a cathode is a negative electrode
the most common used modality is galvanic current
galvanic is used for unblocking clogged pores and to drive solutions into the skin
the active electrode is the electrode that is used on the area to be treated
the inactive electrode is the electrode that is not used on the area to be treated
what electrode closes the pores andf produces acidic reactions anode
what electrode opens the pores andf produces alkaline reactions cathode
ionophoresis the process of introducing water-soluble products into the skin.
cataphoresis forces acidic substances into the skin
anaphoresis forces alkaline substances into the skin
desincrustation process which uses the negative pole to soften and emulsfy oil and blackheads in hair folicles
Faradic current is an alternating and interruped current that produces a mechanical reaction without a chemical effect.
sinusoidal current an alternating current thaqt produces mechanical reactions and tones the muscles
microcurrent an extreamly low level of electricity that mirrors the bodys own electrical impulses
Tesla high frequency current a thermal or heat producing current with a high oscillation or vibration
visible light electromagnetic radiation we can see
electromagnectic radiation carries or radiates enery through space on waves
wavelength the distance between two wave peaks
visible light makes up _______% of ntural sunlight 35
invisible rays make up _________% of natural sunlight 65
what color has the shortest wavelength violet
what color has the longest wavelength red
ultraviolet rays (UV) make up _________% of natural sunlight 5
UVA are the longest and penetrate into the dermis
UVB are burning rays
UVC are short rays blocked by the ozone layer
light therapy or phototherapy does what? kills bacteria on skin and help body produce vitamin D
Infrared rays make up _________% of natural sunlight 60
white light has all benefits of the full spectrum
blue light should be used on oily skin that is bare
red light should be used on dry skin with oils or cream
ultraviolet light produces what in the skin vitamin D
what color light penetrates the deepest? Red
lasers work by selective photothermology
photothermology a process that turns the light from a laser into heat
LED blue reduces acne
LED red good for circulation and improving collagen
LED yellow reduces swelling and inflamation
LED green good for hyperpigmentation

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