to cook by dry heat usually in an oven
to place several ingredients in a single bowl and thoroughly mix
to distribute solid shortening into dry ingredients
to beat quickly and vigorously to incorporate air into a mixture
to force through a fine sieve to aerate dry ingredients
to mix with a spoon in a circular or rotary motion
to beat ingredients, such as shortening and sugar, until soft and creamy
to change racks and rotate 180 degrees
number of servings or amount a recipe makes
to rub the inside of a baking dish or pan with fat to keep contents from sticking
to combine a delicate or light fluffly mixture into a heavier one
to rapidly mix with a spoon, fork, wire whisk or electric mixer
the main baking ingredient which provides a protein called gluten that forms the structure of a baked product
Ingredient which adds nutrients, flavor, color, and tenderness to baked goods
Ingredient that provides sweetness and browning to baked goods
Ingredient that adds richness, flavor and tenderness
Ingredient that adds the moisture and is needed to develop the gluten
Ingredient that enables baked goods to rise and become light and porous
The type of flour that is used the most in American kitchens, which is blended from hard & soft wheat.
Examples: Baking soda, baking powder, air, & yeast
An area of concentrated heat that can produce uneven baking and browning.
When measuring liquids, set the cup on a level surface & read the measurement here.
Spatula (leveling or straight-edge)
When measuring dry ingredients, level off the top of the cup using this.
A fat usually not used for baking because of its distinctive flavor.
Cake and Pastry Flour
This flour creates the least amount of gluten
This protein creates structure & gets stronger the longer you mix.
Baking soda reacts chemically with acidic liquids to produce this.
Storage for this ingredient: cool, dry place, preferably in a tightly covered container
Water and Milk
The most common liquids used in baking.
Convection and Conventional Ovens
The main difference is baking temperature & cooking time
Products baked in here brown faster & lose less moisture; circulates air with a fan
Greasing a Pan
use unsalted butter to avoid pan corrosion
Color/material of baking pan
has no effect on the baking process
granulated sugar coated with molasses
should be stored in a cool dry area
Solid Fats and Oils
cannot be used interchangeably
Ingredient which should be stored in an open container so that air can circulate and keep the powder fresh.
proteins in this add richness and increase browning.
Whole Grain Flour
Ingredient which should be refrigerated after opening because it contains oils that may turn rancid
Cakes and breads
should be left in their pans to cool after being removed from the oven.