One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress.
The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government.
The people chosen to cast each state's votes in a presidential election. Each state can cast one electoral vote for each senator and representative it has. The District of Columbia has three electoral votes, even though it cannot elect a representative or senator.
A president's subordinates report to him through a clear chain of command headed by a chief of staff.
Ad hoc structure
Several subordinates, cabinet officers, and committees report directly to the president on different matters.
The president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public.
A message from the president to Congress stating that he will not sign a bill it has passed. Must be produced within ten days of the bill's passage.
A bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourns.
An executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature.
The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power.