weak syllable deletion
One syllable is deleted from a multisyllabic word. Children will use this process up to age 4.
banana becomes nana
final consonant deletion
Final consonants are deleted from the ends of words. Children stop using this process by about 3 1/2 years of age.
dog becomes do
Usually occurs with weak syllable reduction; syllables are duplicated. Children should stop using this process by about 2 1/2 years of age.
mother becomes mama
Occurs when one or more consonants is deleted from a 2-consonant or 3-consonant cluster. Children should stop using this process by age 4.
school becomes kool
This occurs when a vowel is added to the beginning of a word.
school becomes aschool
This occurs when a segment is added within words. This should disappear after age 3.
blue becomes balue
A sound that is not a stop (a fricative or an affricate) becomes a stop. Children may use this process as late as age 5.
sun becomes tun
A sound that is in the back of the mouth (palatal or velar) is replaced by one in the front of the mouth (usually an alveolar). This usually disappears around 2 to 3 years of age.
cat becomes tat; gun becomes dun
This occurs when an affricate becomes a fricative.
church becomes surs; ledge becomes lez
This occurs when a liquid is replaced with a glide. This process can persist up to age 5.
rabbit becomes wabbit; lawn becomes jawn
This occurs when a vowel replaces a consonant.
little become litto; help become heup
A nonlabial phoneme is produced with a labial place of articulation. This is due to the presence of a labial phoneme elsewhere in the word.
cap becomes pap; mad becomes mab
A nonalveolar phoneme is produced with an alveolar place of articulation due to the presence of an alveolar phoneme elsewhere in the word
cat becomes tat; neck becomes net
A nonvelar phoneme is produced with a velar place of articulation due to the presence of a velar sound elsewhere in the word.
dog becomes gog; cup becomes cuk
At the beginning of a words, voiceless consonants become voiced because the vowel following them is voiced.
cat becomes gat; pig becomes big
At the ends of words, voiced consonants become voiceless because what follows them is silence (which is voiceless by definition).
dog becomes dok; bad becomes bat