Africa

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Savanna

-Tropical, wet, and dry
-warm year-round
-rainfall is unpredictable
-has drought
-desertification
-50% of Africa

drought

prolonged period of time without water

cataracts

waterfall; made trade difficult

desertification

the turning of land to desert by overgrazing and drought

deforestation

cutting down of the rain forest in order to farm

Griot

African storyteller

Animism

worship of spirits in nature

Bantus

early Africans who moved south, and spreading culture
-cattle was very important; seen as wealth
-spread language

Egyptians

-lived near the Nile
-Polytheistic
-had hieroglyphics and pyramids

Nubians (1,000 B.C.-150 A.D.)

-present day Sudan
-capital was at Meroë, at which they traded ivory, gold, and animal skins with Mediterranean and the Middle East
-adapted Egyptian ideas
-had a writing system
-taken over by Axum in 350 A.D.

Axum (900 B.C.-600 A.D.)

-modern day Ethiopia
-the early people were farmers and traders who traded with the people along the Red Sea
-Geaz
-practiced Judaism which lead to Christianity
-traded gold, and ivory for medal and cloth
-terrace farmed
-built stone churches in the highlands

Geaz

written language in Axum

Berbers

-early farmers and traders
-used horses and and revolutionized trade with the camel
-helped connect trade between North and West Africa
-transaharan trade route

transaharan trade route

route in which salt and iron were traded for gold

Carthiginians (Phoenicians)(1000 B.C.)

-settled in Carthage
-controlled trade in the Mediterranean
-ruled by an Oligarchy
-Plytheistic: sacrificed male children to Baal
-conquered by Romans

Oligarchy

government rule by a select few

Romans

brought:
-their military
-taxes
-architecture (coliseums)
-Christianity

Ghana (800-1100 A.D.)

-present day Mali
-controlled the gold and salt ttrade
-collected taxes and tolls
-women had high status
-Islam spread to Ghana

Mali (1250-1400 A.D.)

-present day Burkina Faso and Senegal
-took over gold and salt trade
-major trading center was Timbuktu (libraries, schools, mosques)
-Mansa Musa

Mansa Musa

-expanded territory
-converted to Islam and goes on a hajj
-brought Muslim scholars back West Africa, which caused more people to become interested in West Africa

Songhai (1450-1586 A.D.)

-present day Mali and Niger
-largest West African Kingdom
-ruled by a military dictator called an askia
-major city was Gao
-continued the gold and salt trade from Timbuktu
-most people remained polytheistic, but some converted to Islam

Hausa

-had many female rulers
-weaving was their major industry

Benin

-modern day Guinea
-had an Oba
-had bronze and brass art
-Europeans will arrive and set up the slave trade

oba

king/religious leader

Kilwa

Port city along the Southeast coast

Swahili

an East-African language composed of Bantu and Arabic

Great Zimbabwe

civilization in Southeast Africa
-little known about them
-thought to decline due to over farming and warfare

Khosian

-settled in the Kalahari Desert
-language has clicking sounds

Kinship

large groups of family members who live and work together

Patrilineal

family line through the father

Matrilineal

family line through the mother

Consensus

tribes work together to come to an agrement

Ibn Battuta

African traveler who wrote about his journeys through Africa

characteristics of African religion

-worship spirits and ancestors
-song and dance used to worship

Muslims

brought:
-Islam
-Arabic
-architecture
-art
-medecin
-math

Desert

-40% of Africa
-Sahara
-Kalahari
-Namib

Sahara

-larger than the U.S.
-130°F

Kalahari

-located in Southern Africa
-some plant life

Namib

one of the driest places on earth

Tropical

-8% of Africa
-hot and humid
-rainforest
-disease (Malaria)
-leaching
-deforestation

leaching

when nutrients are drained out of the soil

Temperate

-2% of Africa
-hot summers, cool winters
-good for growing and grazing

Agriculture

-bananas
-wheat
-coffee

African societies

are organized in kinships

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