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he asserted his rights as a Roman citizen

Paul's case was transferred to Rome because?

Romulus

According to legend, Rome was founded by?

Etruscans

During its early history, Rome was dominated by the?

consuls

in the early stages of the Roman republic, the patricians elected two?

plebeians

in an effort to alleviate social tensions, this group was allowed to elect two and then later ten tribunes?

dictator

during times of crisis, the Romans would appoint an official with absolute power known as a?

generous

the Roman policy toward conquered peoples was?

Achaemenids??

the Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the?

Carthaginians

in the early period of Roman expansion, the principle power in the western Mediterranean was the?

Sicily

During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was it?

Punic Wars

Rome's monumental struggle with the Carthaginians was known as the?

Carthaginians

the turning point in Roman history was their struggle, in the Punic Wars, with the?

a seige formation that troops formed by surrounding themselves with their shields to avoid defenders' missiles while approaching city walls (literally "the tortoise")

the testudo was?

enormous plantations

Latifundia were?

Tiberius

the tribune whose call for land reform led to his assassination in 132 BCE was?

a general who sided with social reformers who advocated redistribution of land

Gaius Marius?

Sulla

the leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than 10,000 of his political enemies was?

favored liberal policies and social reform

in regard to political philosophy, Julius Caesar?

DID: centralize military and political functions, confiscated property from conservatives and distributed it to his veterans/supporters, launched large-scale building projects, extended Roman citizenship to peoples in imperial provinces

after naming himself dictator in 46 BCE, Julius Caesar did all of the following except?

a naval battle at Actium in Greece

Octavian was able to restore order to the Roman world with his victory in 31 BCE at?

Mark Antony

Augustus was able to reunify the empire after defeating his main rivals, who were?

Cleopatra

the last of the Ptolemaic rulers was?

a monarchy disguised as a republic

the government established by Augustus Caesar?

stimulated the development of local economies and states

the Roman conquest of Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain?

Augustus

the period known as "pax romana" was started by?

pax romana (Roman peace)

the reign of Augustus inaugurated a period known as the?

"father of the family", the eldest male ruling the household

the phrase "pater familias" refers to?

1/3

by the second centruy CE, how much of the total population of the Roman Empire was represented by slaves?

assembled an army of 70,000 rebellious slaves

in 73 BCE, Spartacus?

Mars

Zeus was to Jupiter as Ares was to?

the hearth

Vesta was the Roman goddess of?

Stoic

the Roman thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero was best associated with the Hellenistic school of thought?

Stoicism

the most prominent school of moral philosophy in Rome was?

a god closely identified with the sun and light in Zoroastrian mythology

Mithras was?

Jews in Palestine

from 66 to 70 CE, the Romans fought a bloody war with the?

a sect of the Jews who wrote the Dead Sea scrolls

the Essences were?

the anointed one

Jesus of Nazareth's followers called him, "Christ," which meant?

Jesus

the phrase "the kingdom of God is at hand" is associated with

Paul of Tarsus

the leading figure in the expansion of Christianity beyond Judaism was ?

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