Chapter 15: Manifest Destiny and the Growing Nation

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Manifest Destiny

the phrase means "obvious fate"; it was the fate of the US to overspread and possess the continent.

The Louisiana Purchase

President Thomas Jefferson sent James Monroe to France with an offer to buy New Orleans for $7.5 million; Napoleon wanted to sell this whole state to US to avoid losing it to the British in a war. The US bought this whole state and doubled the country's size.for $15 million.

The Purchase Debate

Some people thought the Louisiana Purchase was a bargain;Some felt the area was too large to govern; others thought it was too much money.

diplomacy

the art of conducting negotiations with other countries.

Invasion of Florida

Andrew Jackson marched into this state with 1,700 troops and replaced the governor with an American. He did this because the Spanish government wasn't controling this territory and the Seminoles who lived there were raiding Georgia farms.

Govern or Get Out!

This was the message that Monroe sent to Spain about their lack of control over Florida. Spain left Florida, gave it to the US and the US paid off $5 million in settler's claims against Spain.The US also honored Spain's claim to Texas.

Stephen Austin

After Spanish officials granted this man's father with land in Texas, he started a colony in Texas. By 1830, there were 25,000 Americans in Texas.

William Travis

After Mexican government closed Texas to further American immigrants, this young lawyer called for a revolution.

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

the head of the Mexican government who was a power-hungry dictator

The Alamo

an old mission in San Antonio, Texas that was defended by 180 Texan volunteers. All but one man (who fled) were killed by Santa Anna's troops.

Sam Houston

the commander of the Texas revolutionary army whose troops staged a surprise attack on Santa Anna. He was captured and Texas won their freedom.

Davy Crockett

a famous frontiersman and former cognressman from Tennessee who was killed at the Alamo

Lone Star Republic

Texas was an independent country for 10 years and called this name because of the single star on their flag. After Polk was elected, Texas was admitted as the 28th state.

Oregon Fever

this land was claimed during Lewis and Clark's expedition. Then when missionaries settled there and described it as a "pioneer's paradise" ,1,000 pioneers headed for this land.

All of Oregon or Half?

Polk promised when he won the election of 1844 that he wouldn't rest until the US had annexed all of this land. He didn't want to risk war with Britain (because they shared this land), so Polk agreed to a treaty that divided Oregon in half at the 49th parallel.

the War with Mexico

When Congress voted to annex Texas, relations between the US and Mexico went bad; Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border, but Mexico wanted it to be the Nueces River; Mexican soldiers fired on American troops patrolling the Rio Grande and Congress declared war on Mexico (April 27, 1846)

James Polk

11th President of the United States, wanted to expand the US by signing a treaty with Britain for half of Oregon; his expansionism led to the Mexican War and the annexation of California and much of the southwest (1795-1849)

US Invasion of Mexico

Under Zachary Taylor, US troops fought south from Texas; Santa Anna retreated south; General Winfield Scot fought with US troops to Mexico City and fought 1000 Mexican soldiers and 100 young cadets; Mexico City was captured in 1847

Los Ninos Heroes

the six "heroic children" who are honored in Mexico for fighting to their death to defend their fortress in Mexico City

The Treaty of Guadualupe Hidalgo

In 1848, Mexico and US signed this agreement. Mexico gave up Texas and the Mexican Cession which included California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico as well as parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Mexico gave up half its territory.

cession

something that is given up

annex

to add

Gadsden Purchase

In 1853, this strip of land south of the Mexican Cession was purchased for $10 million. This enabled railroad builders to have a flat piece of land that helped the nation stretch from "sea to shining sea."

tejanos

Mexican residents of Texas

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