AP European History Chapter 12

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67 terms · The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century

little ice age

slight shift in overall temperature patterns resulted in a shortened growing seasons and disastrous weather conditions (1315-1317)

Black Death

the most devastating natural disaster in European History that caused economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval, was diffused through the Mongols from Asia, and was made from bubonic, pneumonic, and septicamic plague strains (1347-1450)

Giovanni Boccaccio

writer of the book The Decameron which described reactions to the Black Death

flagellants

people who flogged each other with whips to win the forgiveness of God whom they felt had sent the plague to punish humans for their sinful ways

Pope Clement VI

condemned the flagellants and urged public authority to crush them

postplague Europe

demonstrated a morbid preoccupation with death

Henry Knighton

chronicler who observed life after the Black Death

Statue of Laborers

moverment by the English Parliment which attempted to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants

Jacquerie

peasant revolt in northern France that was caused by destruction of normal order by the Black Death and tension from the Hundred Years war (1358)

Etienne Marcel

a bourgeois draper who was leader of the peasants in the peasant revolt in northern France

English Peasants' Revolt

monarchy's attempt to raise revenues by imposing a tax poll or flat charge to each adult member of the population caused this

Wat Tyler

peasant who led the English Peasants' Revolt

John Ball

preacher who led the English Peasants' Revolt and preached "When Adam delved and Eve span, who then was a gentleman?"

Merchants of the Staple

a group of wool exporters who were granted by the English government a monopoly on the wool trade in return for loans

ciompi

wool workers in Florence who revolted and gained the right to form guilds and be represented in government, but only for a short time

Hundred Years' War

war between France and England which was fought over the territory of Gascony, French intervention in Flanders, and succession to the French throne

longbow

weapon used by English peasantry during Hundred Years' War that helped England gain an advantage

the Black Prince

also known as Edward, prince of Wales, who destroyed French towns to devastate the French

Peace of Bretigny

French paid a large ransom for King John, English territoriees in Gascony were enlarged, and Edward renounced his claims to the French throne

Joan of Arc

believing saints commanded her to free France and have to dauphin (heir) crowned as king, she helped France turn the Hundred Years' War around

Calais

the only town in France that remained in English possession after the Hundred Years' War

scutage

money payments that were substituted for military services

reign of Edward III

parliment increased in prominence and developed it's basic structure of House of Lords and House of Commons

reign of Richard II

aspired to absolute power, but was killed and replaced

reign of Henry IV

nobles rose to take advantage of the ruler which led to War of the Roses

Estates-General

French parliment composed of clergy (first estate), nobility (second estate), and everyone else (third estate)

Philip VI

French ruler during Hundred Years' War who put a tax on salt (gabelle) and created a hearth tax (taille)

Charles V

recovered French land lost to the English and reestablished strong monarchical powers

Charles VI

dukes of Burgundy and Orleans fought to control the monarchy under his rule

Golden Bull

document issued by Charles IV that stated the four lay princes (from Rhine, Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bohemia) and three ecclesiastical rulers (archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne) will serve as electors with power to elect the German king ("King of the Romans")

podesta/capitano del popolo

literally meaning captain of the people, this person was allowed rule for a limited time in Italy

signore

lords or despots of Italy

condoterrieri

leaders of mercenary soldiers in Italy

Milan

chief center of opposition to the Holy Roman Empire as well as one of the richest city-states in Italy ruled by the Visconti family

Florence

city-state whose government was controlled by a small merchant oligarchy

grandi

patron class of nobles

popolo grasso

wealthy merchant industrialist class

Ordinances of Justice

provided for a republican government controlled by the seven major guilds of the city of Florence

signoria

council of elected priors

gonfaloniere

standard bearer of justice

popolo minuto

small shopkeepers and artisans

Venice

controlled by the Great Council (made up of the Senate and Council of Ten) and the doge (duke), this city state was known for its stability

Pope Boniface VII

struggle between papacy and secular monarchies began under this pope

Philip IV

king of France who tried to tax French clergy

Unam Sanctum

strongest statement ever made by a pope on the supremacy of the spiritual authority over the temporal authority

Pope Clement V

first pope to move to Avignon which resulted in the Great Schism

pluralism

act of holding more than one position in the church

absenteeism

act of being absent for one's church duties and paying substitutes to perform duties

Pope Gregory XI

first pope to move from Avignon back to Rome

Great Schism

event caused by electing two popes at once that resulted in badly damaging Christian faith (1378-1415)

Marsiglio of Padua

author of Defender of the Peace who denied that temporal authority was subject to spiritual autority

Council of Pisa

tried to dispose of Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII and elect Pope Alexander V, but Urban and Clement did not step down

Council of Constance

organized by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, this meeting ended the Great Schism and appointed a new pope, Pope Martin V

purgatory

the state in which souls existed after death so they could be purged of punishment from sins

mysticism

immediate experience with oneness with God

Meister Eckhart

preacher who started a mystical movement in western Germany

Johannes Tauler

channeled German mysticism into an aspiration of an inwardness of religious feelings

Gerard Groote

founder of Modern Devotion, a new form of German mysticism

Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life

followers of Groote who took no monastic vows, but abided by semi-monastic laws in communities

William of Occam

asserted all universal concepts were simply names and only individual objects perceived by the senses were real

Dante

writer of Divine Comedy which was a story of the soul's progress to salvation

Petrarch

Europe's greatest lyric poet

Chaucer

author of The Canterbury Tales

Giotto

artist who desired to imitate nature by using perspective and beginning to make things looks more realistic

ars moriendi

meaning the art of dying, this is a term for artistic works that concentrated on pain and death

The Triumph of Death

painting by Traini that shows a morbid concern with death

Thomas Aquinas

believed men were active and domineering while women were passive and submissive according to natural order

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