What did Avery's experiments show?
The transforming agent from Griffith's experiment was DNA, and can be prevented by protein destroying agents.
How are proteins made?
Transcription and Translation
How is the double helix unwound?
Helicase unwinds and breaks the Hydrogen bonds between base pairs
What are chromosomes made of?
Nucleotides that build up DNA which holds deoxyribose, phosphate, and one of the 4 bases
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases of RNA?
Adenine, Guanine, Uracil, Cytosine
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases of DNA?
Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine
What are the different types of mutations and what do they do?
Chromosomal mutations-which affect multiple genes, DNA mutations- which affect a single gene
What are the parts of a tRNA molecule?
Attachment site for amino acids, anticodon for attachment to mRNA, acts as interpreter that carries amino acids to the correct codon
What are the three parts of RNA and what do they do?
rRna- ribosomal RNA which makes up a ribosome, tRNA- which carries the amino acid to the ribosome, mRNA- which encodes the DNA's blueprint for a protein product
What did Chargaff state?
The concentrations of A and T, G and C are the same, therefore they must pair to form the double helix
What did Griffith observe?
The procedss of transformation was occuring between harmless and harmful strains of bacteria
What did Hershey and Chase conclude?
DNA was in fact the hereditary material
What did Rosiland Franklin discover?
X ray photograph showing that DNA is a tightly coiled double helix
What did Watson and Crick discover?
Established the structure of DNA, concluded bases are held together by hydrogen bonds
What does DNA polymerase do?
Adds the complimentary base to DNA
What does RNA polymerase do?
Opens the DNA molecule, attaches to DNA, and adds the complimentary base to mRNA
What happens during replication?
DNA is copied
What happens in transcription?
DNA is replicated into the mRNA
What happens during translation?
Decoding mRNA into proper amino acid sequence
What is a codon chart and how is it used?
Chart used to decode mRNA in amino acid
What is a codon?
A sequence of 3 bases
What is a nucleotide made of? (3 things)
nitrogen base, phosphate, sugars
What is a promoter?
Contains TATA box, site of initiation for transcription
What is a purine?
double ring ring bases, G and A
What is a pyrimidine?
single ring bases , C and T
What is a anticodon?
it ensures that the proper amino acid is delivered to mRNA
What is replication?
process of copying DNA, prior to cell division
What is the complimentary DNA strand to ATTCAGCGA?
What is the complimentary RNA strand to ATTCAGCGA?
What is the lagging strand? What is the leading strand?
Lagging- strand growing away from forks , contains okasaki fragments. Leading- grows toward forks, no fragments
What sugar is in DNA? RNA?
1. Deoxyribose. 2. Ribose
Where is DNA found in Eukaryotes? Prokaryotes?
1. Nucleus. 2. Cytoplasm