What did members of the Dunning School believe?
The South was ruined by Reconstruction, freedmen were incapable of self-government, and allowing blacks to vote was a serious error
Where were the members of the Dunning School from?
Outline Lincoln's 10% Plan.
Once 10% or more of the voting population of any occupied state had taken the oath, they were authorized to set up a loyal government
What were some restrictions set for the new governments set by the new Confederate states?
Slavery must be abolished in their constitution and high ranking former confederate officers could not be in office
What were some of the problems with Lincoln's 10% Plan?
Congress was not involved in this plan because Lincoln claimed the states never rebelled, there was no plan set up for physical reconstruction, there was no plan for what freedmen were supposed to do, and freed slaves got no vote, no education, and no citizenship
How did Johnson feel in regards to whether Confederate states had left the Union?
He agreed with Lincoln that the states had just rebelled
T or F: Johnson was a former slave holder and was also the only Senator from a confederate state to remain in office during the Civil War.
When the Republicans passed Black Codes into the Constitution what were they designed to do?
Control the freedmen economically and socially
What were black codes?
A variety of special regulations and restrictions on the freedom of former slaves including separation in public areas
Black codes said that freedmen could not:
Own property, legally marry, own land, vote, or attend court
When, where, and why did Race Riots occur?
After the 14th amendment was passed, in New Orleans and Memphis, because the 14th amendment gave all people equal rights and southerners did not agree with this law
What did vagrancy laws do to freedmen?
Put them back into working contracts with white men for little money
What is the Freedmen's Bureau?
a temporary agency charged with providing former slaves with relief, legal help, and educational and employment assistance
How was the Civil Rights Act passed?
Congress voted yes, Johnson vetoed it, then Congress passed it over him
When did Congress vote to impeach Johnson?
After he violated the tenure of office act
Was Johnson impeached?
No it fell one vote shy
What conditions allowed America to be the leading industrial nation while it was still young and had just experienced a Civil War?
The rise of Big Business, railroads, natural resources, inventions, technology, capital, population, and entrepreneurs
Why were railroads essential for American growth?
They linked producers to consumers, they sped up travel, they had dependable schedules and direct routes, and they could carry more volume
Why was it good that US was rich in NRs like oil, sinc, gold, steel, and coal?
They didn't need to send out for NRs
Which inventions were important for Industrialization in America?
Telegraph, telephone, and lighting
Describe capital in the US during Industrialization.
Liquid; not taxed or reulated
What new group in the population allowed for industrialization?
John D. Rockefeller controlled 90% of what field?
What allowed Rockefeller to increase stability and profits?
He organized industry and agreed to regularly ship with the railroads in exchange for rebates and a list of competitor's shipping
Rockefeller also decided to use vertical integration, meaning he controlled production of...
Oil fields, barrel makers, railroads, ships, and banks
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish immigrant who used vertical integration in the field of?
Carnegie eventually sold his business to _____ and became a philanthropist.
Who wrote The Gospel of Wealth?
Gustavus Swift use ____ to revolutionize the meat packing industry.
The Assembly Line
Who financed most of the industrial entrepreneurs?
What was the outcome of Munn v. Illinois?
States had the right to regulate interstate commerce
What was the outcome of Wabash v. Illinois?
States did not have the right to regulate interstate commerce
What is the difference between Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction?
Presidential reconstruction focused on readmitting Confederate states into the union and Congressional reconstruction focused on the rights of newly freedmen
Why was the Reconstruction a failure?
There was no plan for freedmen's rights, blacks were still treated badly in the south, and there was still much of the physical reconstruction left in the south
What is sharecropping?
The right to work a small piece of land independently in return for a fixed share of the crop produced on it
What was the Mississippi Plan?
A plan made by the Democrats in Mississippi to overthrow the Republican Party my means of threats of violence towards blacks or the purchase of black votes
A scalawag is a nickname for a ______.
Southern whites who supported the Reconstruction
What did the 15th Amendment do?
Gave black men the right to vote
What is the Wade-Davis Bill?
It required 50% of the voters take an oath of future loyalty before the restoration process could begin
In spite of this being a capitalist nation, it relies on ____.
What were the three parts of the Interstate Commerce Act?
Rates must be reasonable, no rebates, and schedules must be open to the public
The Sherman AntiTrust Act outlawed _____ and was used against _____ when in strike.
What three factors were workers concerned with on the job?
Salary, working conditions, and time spent at work
What is the definition of trade unionism?
Collective effort of workers to improve their conditions
What is significant about the National Labor Union?
It was the first national labor union
The Noble Order of the Knights of Labor worked to get better conditions for ______ workers and used _____ as tools to get better conditions.
All; strikes, boycotts, and work slowdown
Which strike make the NOKL look like a radical group?
The Haymarket Riot
Which organization only works to get better conditions for skilled workers?
American Federation of Labor
Who were the "new immigrtants"?
First peole from northern and western Europe, then people form southern and eastern Europe and also some Chinese and Mexicans
What were the push factors that made these new immigrants leave their homelands?
Droughts, Crop failures, and to escape religious persecution
What were that pull factors that drew new immigrants to migrate to America?
Economic opportunities like the new industry, democracy as a new form of government, and politicians who were willing to help their families in exchange for votes
Explain the Padrone System.
Fellow countrymen working for American businessmen would bring over immigrants from their home country, give them food and jobs but in exchange these new immigrants got little or no wages
What was the significance of America passing the Chinese Exclusion Act?
It showed Americans hostility towards immigrants for the first time in US history
Literacy tests were designed to...
keep out the poor
Why was urbanization bad for US cities?
It caused an increase of existing problems
How did US cities grow?
Influx of rural US, Annexation (when one cities absorbs another), and the influx of immigrants
What was the negative to cities being governed by "machine politics"?
In order for contracts for city jobs, workers had to go to the "machine politicians"
What were the positives to cities being governed by "machine politics"?
city dwellers given jobs, and families were helped in times of need
Who was the most well-known Settlement House worker and where did she study the city's poor?
Jane Addams; University of Chicago
Who made the 1st settlement house?
The Progressive Era moved away from the ______ philosophy that dominated the period of Industrialization.
Who was a notable person from the Birth Control Movement?
Who said "As long as women are dependent on men, women would be 2nd class citizens"?
Who was a famous muckraker who exposed The Standard Oil Company?
Who was known as the first muckraker?
Who was noted as believing African Americans could only advance themselves if they did it by themselves economically, he also started the Tuskegee Institute to train AA in agriculture?
Booker T. Washington
Who started the Niagra Movement and was the editor of the Crisis magazine?
What remarkable statistic did Ida B. Wells determine about lynching in the South?
80% of lynchings were done without provocation
What were the two objectives of Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan?
To shorten the war and further his emancipation proclamation
What were the men who came to power after the Radical Reconstruction referred to as?