Three different types of memory
Long term memory
the relatively permanent & limitless storehouse of memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, & experiences
Short term memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.
What's the order in which me memorize
We first record to be remembered in fleeting sensory, process into short term, then encode through rehearsal, and finally moves into long term for later retrieval .
Why do we forget?
We don't put effort in processing
No spacing effect - break learning into increments
Decay, things decay without use
Encoding failures, interference
Proactive interference; old learning disrupts your recall of new information (forward acting, order; old disrupts your new)
Retroactive interference; new learning disrupts your old like if your new password makes it hard to learn old
He suffered from retrograde and anterograde amnesia from getting a cold sore (herpes) which attacked his brain. All he has is short term memory.
Retrograde amnesia targets your most recent memories first. The more severe the case, the farther back in time the memory loss extends.
is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia
Unable to form new memories
Attribute the wrong source to event because you may have read about it or heard about it. Married couples get this a lot = they hear about their spouse's events so often they think they were a part of it.
Misinformation effect (type of amnesia)
After exposure to subtle misinformation, many people misremember.
Repressed memories (type of amnesia)
Basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories. Many victims of assault repress these painful feelings unknowingly.
After trauma, forget all biographical info for a period of time. In all cases, however, it is found that the memory is actually really there, just not accessible.
Alzheimer (type of amnesia)
Slow onset, progressive deterioration, phyical deterioration
Fugue (type of amnesia) very rare
ex: Unknown white male suddenly wakes up and because aware of himself and is completely surprised to be where he is. Sort of like he had lived life in automatic mode until then.
How is intelligence measured
Intelligence tests are methods for assessing individuals mental aptitudes comparing them to those of others using numerical scores. Different types of intelligence are measured.
General intelligence: All aspects of intelligence, to an extent, are correlated with each other. Those who score high in verbal intelligence, score higher than average in other areas like reasoning.
General intelligence involves multiple components:
1. Musical 2. Bodily-Kinesthetic 3. Logical/Mathematical 4. Linguistic 5. Spatial 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal
Triarchic of intelligence:
1.Analytical (academic problem solving)
2. Creative (adapt to new situations)
3. Practical (street smarts)
Responsible for first intelligence tests. Binet must identify "special needs" kids. He believes kids should have a certain intelligence at a certain age but if they're slow or retarded their mental age will be behind the chronological one.
Compute an intelligence score without a calculator
Mental Age over Chronological age x 100 = IQ
Seems age 8 but is age 10 x 100 = 80
IQ measurement issues
Validity - Measure what they're supposed to measure
Reliability - Get same score at different times
How are reaction time and intelligence related
Correlated, faster speed of processing, greater working memory. Not casual, just as an association
Describe the different theories of emotion.
How do you measure emotions?
Describe how emotions help us maintain social bonds.
What parts of the brain are involved with emotions.
How are emotions adaptive?
Fear can cause people to flee or anger can cause them to go into "fight mode." They're adaptive because they can raise blood pressure and help stimulate the body if you have a fight or flight response.
Describe the universality of emotions.
What are some social or cultural display rules associated with emotions?
Cultural gestures sometimes vary with culture, like clap to express worry disappointment, show tongue to show a response or thumbs up is a problem, but facial expressions don't really change
Describe gender differences related to emotional expression and decoding.
Women studies show more expression and had more complex descriptions of their emotions. Women can discern from thin slices emotion more often.
Explain and describe the facial feedback hypothesis.
Is memory like a digital video recorder
How important are retrieval cues? Be familiar with studies on mood-congruent recall.
What did Lashley find?
Describe the Ebbinghaus learning and forgetting studies.
Discuss catharsis as it relates to anger. (Punching bag study)
What makes us happy?
Why is anger so hard to control?
What are some strategies for remembering information?
Understand the difference between explicit and implicit memory
What is the serial position effect?
How does effect differ from cognition?
Can you experience motions without cognition?
Be able to relate the course themes to intelligence, memory, and emotions.
What does intelligence predict? Put into context of larger discussion of predictive validity.