BIO 142 EXAM 2

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Which of these is unique to flowering plants?
a) haploid gametophytes
b)pollen production
c)a dominant sporophyte generation
d) an embryo surrounded by nutritive tissue
e) double fertilization

E) Double Fertilization

A stamen consists of _______

Anther and Filament.

A fruit is most commonly....
a)a mature female gametophyte
b) a mature ovary
c) a modified root
d) an enlarged ovule
e) a thickened style

A mature ovary.

For a short-day plant, _____ is critical in determining if flowering will occur.

Minimum number of hours of darkness

Which of these would stimulate flowering a long-day plant with a critical night length of 12 hours?
a)12 hours of light followed by 12 hours of dark
b)12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, 6 hours of dark.
c) 12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red-light, a flash or far-red light, a flash of ried light, a flash of far-red light, 6 hours of dark
d) 12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of light, a flash of far red light, 6 hours of dark
e) 8 hours of light and 16 hours of dark

B) 12 hours of light, 6 hours of dark, a flash of red light, 6 hours of dark

The hormone that helps plants respond to drought is?

Abscisic Acid

Plant hormones act by affecting the activities of
a) membranes
b)genes and enzymes
c) signal transduction pathways
d)enzymes
e) genes

C) signal transduction pathways

What is characteristic of ALL angiosperms?
a) complete reliance on wind as the pollinating agent
b) double internal fertilization
c) free-living gametophytes
d) carpels that contain microsporangia
e) ovules that are not contained within ovaries

B) Double Internal Fertilization

Plants growing in a partially dark environment will grow toward light in a response called ______. Choose the incorrect statement regarding this process.
a) It is caused by a chemical signal
b) one chemical involved is Auxin
c)Auxin causes a growth increase on one side of the stem
d) Auxin causes a decrease in growth on the side of the stem exposed to light
e) Removing the apical meristem prevents phototorpism

D) Auxin DOES NOT cause a decrese in growth on the side of the stem exposed to light.

A botanist was visiting a tropical region for the purpose of discovering plants with medicinal properties. All of the following might be ways of identifying potentially useful plants EXCEPT:
a) observing which plants sick animals seek out.
b)observing which plants are the most used food plants.
c) observing which plants animals do not eat.
d) collecting plants and subjecting them to chemical analysis
e) asking local people which plants they use as medicine.

B) NOT USEFUL: observing which plants are the most used food plants

The ripening of fruit and the droppping of leaves and fruit are principally controlled by:
a)auxins
b) cytokinins
c) indole acetic acid
d) ethylene
e) carbon dioxide concentration (in air)

D) Ethylene

The fruit is made of material high in calories. How do you think this fruit is dispersed?

Thru an animal's digestive tract.

The fruit contains an air bubble. How do you think it is dispersed?

Thru water currents.

Where are giberellins produced and what is its major function?

Produced on the leaves/stems (roots)
Induce seed germination

Where are brassinosteroids produced and what are their major functions?

Produced in stem (roots) and on leaves
Similar to human sex hormones, they promote cell elongation and division

Carotenoids are

orange

Chlorophyll is

Green

Anthocyanin

red

The loss of leaves in deciduous trees is called _______.

Leaf Abcission

Seasonal changes in the relative lengths of day and night is also known as a _____.

Photoperiod

Which type of light shortens the length of the dark period when flashed?

Red light

Which type of light reverses the activity and once again lengthens the length of the dark?

Far-red Light

Where is Auxin produced and what is its function?

produced in apical meristem, stimulates cell elongation

Where are cytokinins produced and what is their function?

stimulate cell division
(apical buds/ developing seeds and embryos?)

What does abscisic acid do?

Maintains seed dormancy and drought tolerance.

What does ethylene do?

controls fruit ripening and inhibits cell elongation.

Angiosperms can be divided into 2 groups, these are:

Moncots and Eudicots

Describe features of Monocots

Embryo: one cotyledon
Leaf Venation: Veins usually parallel
Stems: Vascular tissue is scattered
Roots: Usually fibrous, no main root
Pollen: pollen grain w/ 1 opening
(ex: orchids, food/grain crops)

Describe features of Eudicots

Embryo: 2 cotyledons
Leaf Venation: veins usually netlike
Stems: Vascular tissue usually arranged in a ring
Roots: Tap root (main root) usually present
Pollen: Pollen grain w/ 3 openings
(ex: most flowers, deciduous trees, veggies)

Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?
a)Cells that have mitochondria
b)the structural carbohydrate, chitin
c) nervous conduction and muscular movement
d) heterotrophy
e) both A and C

C) Animals are the ONLY ones who have Nervous Conduction and Muscular Movement

Almost all of the major animal bodyplans seen today appeared in the fossil record over 500 million years ago at the beginning of the ________.

Cambrian Period

What is the correct sequence of these event during an animal's development?
Gastrulation, metamorphosis, fertilization, cleavage

1. Fertilization
2. Cleavage
3. Gastrulation
4. metamorphosis

Organisims showing radial symmetry would likely...
a) be good swimmers
b)have rapid escape behavior
c) move from place to place slowly, it at all
d) be able to fly
e) have many fins

C) move from place to place slowly, if at all

Identify this organism. It is an animal, but doesn't have nerve or muscle tissue. It is neither diploblastic nor triploblastic. It is probably a...
a) flatworm.
b) jelly
c) comb jelly
d) sponge
e) nematode

D) sponge!!

Identify the 3 phyla of Protostomes

Mollusks, Annelids, arthropods

Identify the 2 phyla of deuterostomes

Echinoderms & Chordates

The shedding of skin layers is called _________ and what 2 groups undergo this process?

Ecdysis
Nematodes and Arthropods

What distinguishes a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate animal?

Coelomates have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.

Give 3characteristics of protostomes

-spiral and determinate cleavage
-coelom forms from mesoderm
-mouth forms from blastopore

Give 3 characteristics of Deuterostomes

-radial and indeterminate cleavage
-coelom forms from archentaron
-anus develops from blastopore

Invertebrates are (protostome/deuterostome)?

They can be either, or anything else.

Which of the following statements concerning animal taxonomy is (are) true?
a) all animal clades based on body plan have been found to be incorrect
b) Animals are thought to have evolved from flagellated protists similar to modern choanoflagellates
c) Only animals reproduce by sexual means
d) Kingdom Animalia is monophyletic
e) Animals are more closely related to plants than to fungi

B & D) Animals are thought to have evolved from flagellated protists similar to modern choanoflagellates, & Kingdom Animalia is Monophyletic

Which are characteristics of cnidaria?
a) a gastrovascular cavity
b) a polyp stage
c) a medusa stage
d) cnidocytes
e) a pseudocoelom

A, B, C & D: Jellyfish have a gastrovascular cavity, a polyp stage, a medusa stage, and cnidocytes

_____ reproduce by _______, in which females produce offspring for an unfertilized egg.

Rotifers & Parthogenesis

a lophophore is used by ectoprocts and brachiopods for ______.

Feeding

A terrestrial mollusc without a shell belongs to which class?

Gastropods

Which are characteristics of arthopods?
1. protostome development
2. bilateral symmetry
3. a pseudocoelom
4. 3 embryonic germ layers
5. a closed circulatory

1, 2, & 4. protostome, bilateral symmetry, and 3 embryonic germ layers

_____ are an example of seedless vascular plants.
a) charophyceans
b) lilacs
c) ferns
d) mosses
e) pine trees

C) Ferns

In the moss life cyce, _____ cells within a sporangium undergo ______ to produce _______ spores.

Diploid.... meiosis.... haploid

Where do fern antheridia develop?

On the underside of the gametophyte

In plants, which of the following are produced by meiosis?
a)haploid gametes
b)haploid spores
c)haploid sporophyte
d)diploid gametes
e)diploid spores

B) haploid spores

What trait was most important in enabling the first plants to move onto land?

The development of sporopollenin to prevent the desiccation of zygotes.

The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always ______.
a) produces spores
b)is called the gametophyte
c) is larger and more conspicuous than the haploid stage
d) develops from a spore
e) produces egg and sperm

A) produces spores

Bryophytes never formed forest because...

They lack lignified vascular tissue.

What plants would have been suitable sources of logs during the Carboniferous period?

Ferns, horestails, and lycophytes (Seedless Vascular)

If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite, then it...

Belongs to a species that is homosporous.

Describe the pine life cycle:

a diploid embryo turns to a diploid seed, which becomes a seedling and grows 2 types of cones, ovulate and pollen. In the pollen cone, the 2n microsporangium undergo meiosis to produce haploid pollen grains, which pollenate the megasporangium that was inside the ovule (ovulate cone). This undergoes meiosis to make a haploid megaspore, which developes into the archegonium and female gametophyte. Then inside the sperm and egg meet and fertilize, making an embryo.

In pines, female gametophytes use ____ to produce _____.

Mitosis... eggs.

In pines, the female gametophyte contians _____, each of which contains a(n) _______.

archegonia....egg.

In the pine, microsporangia form ______ microspores by _______.

Haploid....meiosis.

When you look at a pine or maple tree, the plant you see is a ______.

diploid sporophyte.

Bryophytes are ______ dominant.

Gametophyte

In seedless vascular plants (& ferns), what generation is dominant?

Sporophyte

In gymnosperms and angiosperms, _____ is dominant.

Sporophyte generation

What do angiosperms have that gymnosperms dont?

Protective covering over the ovule & an ovary.

The multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametets.

Sporophyte (2n)

A haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meiosis. Can divide by mitosis to form multicellular haploid gametophytes.

Spore

Multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis.

Gametophyte (n)

Multicellular plant structure (on/in gametophyte) where gametes are formed

Gametangia

Female gametangia

archengonium

Male Gametangia

Antheridium

A _____ is wehre the microsporangia are in an angiosperm. Here the the microspores are formed and made into male gametophytes (or pollen grains)

Stamen (anther and Filament)

A ______ is where the megasporangia sits to form megasporangia (ovule)

Carpel (stigma, style & ovary).

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