← Sociology 302 Exam 3 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All absolute poverty The minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence. ascription Placement in a particular social status based on characteristics such as family of origin, race, and gender. capitalists People who own companies, land, or stocks (shares) and use these to generate economic returns. caste societies Societies in which different social levels are closed, so that all individuals must remain at the social level of their birth throughout life. caste system A social system in which one's social status is given for life. class Although it is one of the most frequently used concepts in sociology, there is no clear agreement about how the notion should be defined. Most sociologists use the term to refer to socioeconomic variations between groups of individuals that create variations in their material prosperity and power. contradictory class locations Positions in the class structure, particularly routine white-collar and lower managerial jobs, that share characteristics of the class positions both above and below them. culture of poverty The thesis, popularized by Oscar Lewis, that poverty is not a result of individual inadequacies but is instead the outcome of a larger social and cultural atmosphere into which successive generations of children are socialized. The culture of poverty refers to the values, beliefs, lifestyles, habits, and traditions that are common among people living under conditions of material deprivation. dependency culture A term popularized by Charles Murray to describe individuals who rely on state welfare provision rather than entering the labor market. The dependency culture is seen as the outcome of the "paternalistic" welfare state that undermines individual ambition and people's capacity for self-help. exchange mobility The exchange of positions on the socioeconomic scale such that talented people move up the economic hierarchy while the less talented move down. feminization of poverty An increase in the proportion of the poor who are female. homeless People who have no place to sleep and either stay in free shelters or sleep in public places not meant for habitation. income Payment, usually derived from wages, salaries, or investments. industrialism hypothesis Theory that societies become more open to social mobility as they become more industrialized. intergenerational mobility Movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy from one generation to another. intragenerational mobility Movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy within the course of a personal career. Kuznets curve A formula showing that inequality increases during the early stages of capitalist development, then declines, and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level; advanced by the economist Simon Kuznets. life chances A term introduced by Max Weber to signify a person's opportunities for achieving economic prosperity. lower class A social class comprised of those who work part time or not at all and whose household income is typically lower than $17,000 a year. means of production The means whereby the production of material goods is carried on in a society, including not just technology but the social relations between producers. middle class A social class composed broadly of those working in white-collar and lower managerial occupations. pariah groups Groups who suffer from negative status discrimination-they are looked down on by most other members of society. The Jews, for example, have been a pariah group throughout much of European history. poverty line An official government measure to define those living in poverty in the United States. relative poverty Poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society. slavery A form of social stratification in which some people are literally owned by others as their property. social closure Practices by which groups separate themselves off from other groups. social exclusion The outcome of multiple deprivations that prevent individuals or groups from participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live. social mobility Movement of individuals or groups between different social positions. social stratification The existence of structured inequalities between groups in society, in terms of their access to material or symbolic rewards. While all societies involve some forms of stratification, only with the development of state-based systems did wide differences in wealth and power arise. The most distinctive form of stratification in modern societies is class divisions. status The social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members of a society. Status groups normally display distinct styles of life-patterns of behavior that the members of a group follow. Status privilege may be positive or negative. Pariah status groups are regarded with disdain or treated as outcasts by the majority of the population. structural mobility Mobility resulting from changes in the number and kinds of jobs available in a society. structured inequalities Social inequalities that result from patterns in the social structure. surplus value The value of a worker's labor power, in Marxist theory, left over when an employer has repaid the cost of hiring the worker. underclass A class of individuals situated at the bottom of the class system, normally composed of people from ethnic minority backgrounds. upper class A social class broadly composed of the more affluent members of society, especially those who have inherited wealth, own businesses, or hold large numbers of stocks (shares). vertical mobility Movement up or down a hierarchy of positions in a social stratification system. wealth Money and material possessions held by an individual or group. working class A social class broadly composed of people working in blue-collar, or manual, occupations. working poor People who work, but whose earnings are not enough to lift them above the poverty line. colonialism The process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories. core countries According to world-systems theory, the most advanced industrial countries, which take the lion's share of profits in the world economic system. dependency theories Marxist theories of economic development arguing that the poverty of low-income countries stems directly from their exploitation by wealthy countries and the multinational corporations that are based in wealthy countries. dependent development The theory that poor countries can still develop economically, but only in ways shaped by their reliance on the wealthier countries. global commodity chains Worldwide networks of labor and production processes yielding a finished product. global inequality The systematic differences in wealth and power between countries. market-oriented theories Theories about economic development that assume that the best possible economic consequences will result if individuals are free to make their own economic decisions, uninhibited by governmental constraint. modernization theory A version of market-oriented development theory that argues that low-income societies develop economically only if they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment. neoliberalism The economic belief that free market forces, achieved by minimizing government restrictions on business, provide the only route to economic growth. newly industrializing economies (NIEs) Developing countries that over the past two or three decades have begun to develop a strong industrial base, such as Singapore and Hong Kong. periphery Countries that have a marginal role in the world economy and are thus dependent on the core producing societies for their trading relationships. semiperiphery Countries that supply sources of labor and raw materials to the core industrial countries and the world economy but are not themselves fully industrialized societies. state-centered theories Development theories that argue that appropriate government policies do not interfere with economic development, but rather can play a key role in bringing it about. world-systems theory Pioneered by Immanuel Wallerstein, this theory emphasizes the interconnections among countries based on the expansion of a capitalist world economy. This economy is made up of core countries, semiperiphery, and periphery. black feminism A strand of feminist theory that highlights the multiple disadvantages of gender, class, and race that shape the experiences of nonwhite women. Black feminists reject the idea of a single, unified gender oppression that is experienced evenly by all women and argue that early feminist analysis reflected the specific concerns of white, middle-class women. comparable worth Policies that attempt to remedy the gender pay gap by adjusting pay so that those in female- dominated jobs are not paid less for equivalent work. feminist theory A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the desire to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them. gender Social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex. Gender refers not to the physical attributes distinguishing men and women but to socially formed traits of masculinity and femininity. The study of gender relations has become one of the most important areas of sociology in recent years. gender inequality The inequality between men and women in terms of wealth, income, and status. gender socialization The learning of gender roles through social factors such as schooling, the media, and family. gender typing Women holding occupations of lower status and pay, such as secretarial and retail positions, and men holding jobs of higher status and pay, such as managerial and professional positions. glass ceiling A promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility within an organization. glass escalator The process by which men in traditionally female professions benefit from an unfair rapid rise within an organization. human capital theory Argument that individuals make investments in their own "human capital" in order to increase their productivity and earnings. liberal feminism Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is produced by unequal access to civil rights and certain social resources, such as education and employment, based on sex. Liberal feminists tend to seek solutions through changes in legislation that ensure that the rights of individuals are protected. patriarchy The dominance of men over women. All known societies are patriarchal, although there are variations in the degree and nature of the power men exercise, as compared with women. One of the prime objectives of women's movements in modern societies is to combat existing patriarchal institutions. postmodern feminism Feminist persepective that challenges the idea of a unitary basis of identity and experience shared by all women. Postmodern feminists reject the claim that there is a grand theory which can explain the position of women in society, or that there is any single, universal essence or category of "woman." Instead, postmodernism encourages the acceptance of many different standpoints as equally valid. radical feminism Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is the result of male domination in all aspects of social and economic life. rape The forcing of nonconsensual vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse. sex The biological and anatomical differences distinguishing females from males. sexual harassment The making of unwanted sexual advances by one individual toward another, in which the first person persists even though it is clear that the other party is resistant. social construction of gender The learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others. assimilation The acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture. diaspora The dispersal of an ethnic population from an original homeland into foreign areas, often in a forced manner or under traumatic circumstances. discrimination Behavior that denies to the members of a particular group resources or rewards that can be obtained by others. Discrimination must be distinguished from prejudice: Individuals who are prejudiced against others may not engage in discriminatory practices against them; conversely, people may act in a discriminatory fashion toward a group even though they are not prejudiced against that group. displacement The transferring of ideas or emotions from their true source to another object. emigration The movement of people out of one country in order to settle in another. ethnic cleansing The creation of ethnically homogeneous territories through the mass expulsion of other ethnic populations. ethnicity Cultural values and norms that distinguish the members of a given group from others. An ethnic group is one whose members share a distinct awareness of a common cultural identity, separating them from other groups. In virtually all societies, ethnic differences are associated with variations in power and material wealth. Where ethnic differences are also racial, such divisions are sometimes especially pronounced. genocide The systematic, planned destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group. immigration The movement of people into one country from another for the purpose of settlement. institutional racism Patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity that have become structured into existing social institutions. melting pot The idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns of behavior drawing on diverse cultural sources. minority group A group of people in a minority in a given society who, because of their distinct physical or cultural characteristics, find themselves in situations of inequality within that society. multiculturalism Ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life. pluralism A model for ethnic relations in which all ethnic groups in the United States retain their independent and separate identities, yet share equally in the rights and powers of citizenship. prejudice The holding of preconceived ideas about an individual or group, ideas that are resistant to change even in the face of new information. Prejudice may be either positive or negative. race Differences in human physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals. racialization The process by which understandings of race are used to classify individuals or groups of people. Racial distinctions are more than ways of describing human differences; they are also important factors in the reproduction of patterns of power and inequality. racial literacy The skills taught to children of multiracial families to help them cope with racial hierarchies and to integrate multiple ethnic identities. racism The attribution of characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a population sharing certain physically inherited characteristics. Racism is one specific form of prejudice, focusing on physical variations between people. Racist attitudes became entrenched during the period of Western colonial expansion, but seem also to rest on mechanisms of prejudice and discrimination found in human societies today. scapegoats Individuals or groups blamed for wrongs that were not of their doing. segregation The practices of keeping racial and ethnic groups physically separate, thereby maintaining the superior position of the dominant group. situational ethnicity Ethnic identity that is chosen for the moment based on the social setting or situation. stereotyping Thinking in terms of fixed and inflexible categories. symbolic ethnicity Ethnic identity that is retained only for symbolic importance.