skull, facial bones, and paransal sinuses

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32 terms

AP Axial (Towne Method)
for cranum (skull series)

CR is 30 degress caudad to OML; or 37 degress caudad to IOML
CR is 2.5" above glabella (through 3/4" superior to level of EAMs)
Criteria-dorsum sellae is seen within the foramen magnum, no rotation evident by symmetric appearance of petrous pyramids

Lateral for cranium (skull series)

CR perpendicular to IR-2" superior to EAM, MSP parallel to IR and IPL perpendicular to IR, IOML parallel to edge of IR
Criteria-no tilt evident by superimposed orbital plates, no rotation evident by superimposed mandibular rami

PA Caldwell for cranium (skull series)

OML perpendicular to IR, MSP perpendicular to IR, CR 15 degress caudad to OML, centered to exit at nasion
Criteria-petrous ridges projected in lower 1/3 of orbits, no rotation evident by equal distance between orbits and lateral skull

PA 0 degree for cranium (skull series)

CR perpendicular to IR, centered to exit at glabella
Criteria-petrous ridges at level of superior orbital margin, no rotation evident by equal distance beween orbits and lateral skull

Submentovertex for cranium (skull series)

IOML parallel to IR, CR angled to be perpendicular to IOML, centered to 3/4" anterior to level of EAMs (midpoint between angles of mandible)
Criteria-no tilt evident by equal distance between mandibular condyles and lateral skull, no rotation evident by MSP parallel to edge of IR

Lateral for facial bones

CR perpendicular to IR, centered to midway between EAM and outer canthus, IOML parallel to IR, IPL perpendicular to IR
Criteria-no tilt evident by superimposed orbital plates, no rotation evident by superimposed mandibular rami

Parietoacanthial (waters) for facial bones

MML is perpendicular to IR puting OML 37 degrees to IR, CR is perpendicular to IR, to exit at acanthion
Criteria-petrous ridges just inferior to floor of maxillary sinuses, no rotation evident by equal distance between orbits and lateral skull

Modified parietoacanthial (modified waters) for facial bones

OML is 55 degrees to the plane of the IR, or LML is perpendicular to IR, CR is perpendicular to IR, to exit at acanthion
Criteria-petrous ridges projected in lower 1/2 of maxillary sinuses, no rotation evident by equal distance between orbits and lateral skull

PA Caldwell aka PA axial for facial bones

OML is perpendicular to IR, CR 15 degrees caudad to OML, centered to exit at nasion
Criteria-petrous ridges projected in lower 1/3 of orbits, no rotation evident by equal distance between orbits and lateral skull

Parietoorbital oblique (Rhese Method) for optic foramina

adjust head so the nose, cheek, and chin are touching the tabletop; adjust the head so the AML is perpendicular to the IR and MSP plane is 53 degrees to the IR, CR is perpendicular to IR, to center of down-side orbit

Submentovertex for zygomatic arches-bilateral

IOML parallel to IR, CR angled as needed to be perpendicular to IOML, centered to midway between zygomatic arches (or 1.5" inferior to mandibular symphasis
Criteria-no roration evident by symmetric arches

Oblique axial projection for zygomatic arches-tangential

start with IOML parallel to the IR, rotate the head approx 15 degrees toward side being examined, tilt the MSP with the chin toward the side of interest about 15 degrees, CR angled if needed to be perpendicular to the IOML, centered to the mid-zygomatic arch
Criteria-no superimposition of arch

AP axial (modified towne) for bilateral zygomatic arches

depress chin to have OML or IOML perpendicular to IR, CR 30 degrees caudad to OML or 37 degrees to IOML, CR 1" superior to glabella to pass through level of mid arches

Lateral for Nasal bones

CR perpendicular to IR, centered to 1/2" inferior to nason

Superoinferior axial (tangential) for nasal bones

rest extended chin on IR, which should be perpendicular to GAL and to CR, CR directed parallel to GAL, centered to nasion

PA for Mandible

OML perpendicular to IR, CR perpendicular to IR to exit at level of lips
Criteria-no rotation evident by symmetic appearance of rami

axiolateral obliques for mandible

extend chin with side of interest against IR, adjust head so IPL is perpendicular to IR, rotate head toward IR as determined by area of interest (10-15 degrees for general survey, 0 degrees for ramus, 30 degrees for body, 45 degrees for mentum), CR 25 degrees cephalic to IPL, centered to down-side mid mandible or 2" below upside angle

AP Axial mandible for Temporomandibular Joints

OML perpendicular to IR, CR 35 degrees caudad to OML (42 degrees to IOML), centered to 2" above glabella to pass through TMJs if they are area of interest

axiolateral oblique (modified Law method) for temporomandibular joints

IOML parallel to top edge of IR, anterior head rotated 15 degrees toward IR with IPL perpendicular to IR, CR 15 degrees caudad, centered to exit through down-side TMJ to eneter 11/2" superior to upside EAM
open and closed mouths and R and L sides done for comparison

axiolateral (Schuller Method) for temporomandibular joints

IOML parallel to IR, true lateral, CR 25 degress caudad, center to exit through downside TMJ-to enter 2" superior and 1/2" anterior to upside EAM
do both closed and open mouth and L and R sides for comparison

Lateral for Paranasal Sinuses

MSP parallel and IPL perpendicular to IR, CR horizontal to midpoint beween EAM and outer canthus

PA Caldwell for paranasal sinuses

tilt head to bring OML 15 degrees from horizontal, CR centered to IR to exit at the nasion

Parietoacanthioal (waters method) for paranasal sinuses

MML perpendicular to IR (OML is 37 degrees to IR) CR horizontal and perpendicular to IR, to exit at acanthion
Optional Open-Mouth Position-mouth open to better visualize sphenoid sinuses

Submentovertex for paranasal sinuses

IOML parallel to plane of IR, CR horizontal and perpendicular to IOML, centered to midpoint between angles of mandible
Criteria-mandibular condyles projected anterior to petrous portion

Cranium-Skull Series

AP Axial (Towne method)
Lateral
PA 0 degrees
PA Caldwell
SMV

Facial Bones

Lateral
Parietoacanthial-Waters
modified parietoacanthial-modified waters
PA Caldwell

Optic Foramina

Parietoorbital oblique-Rhese method

Zygomatic Arches

SMV
Tangential
AP Axial (modified Towne)

Nasal Bones

Lateral
Superoinferior (axial)

Mandible

PA
Axiolateral Oblique
AP Axial

Temporomandibular Joints

Axiolateral Oblique (Law Method)
Axiolateral (Schuller)

Paranasal Sinuses

Lateral
PA Caldwell
Parietoacanthial (Waters)
Submentovertex

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