Why did nomadic hunting and gathering stop?
* Domestication & cultivation of crops
Where did the first civilizations take root?
Around 4 river valleys/major river systems:
* Near East
What river systems was the civilization in Southwest Asia based on?
Tigris & Euphrates
What was the name of the Southwest Asia civilization?
What developments/discoveries are attributed to Mesopotamian civilization?
2. Organized government
3. Written law code
4. Systematized religion
5. Astronomy & Astrology
What kind of writing was created in Mesopotamia?
> Wedge shaped characters
What was the name of the written law code used in Mesopotamia?
What was the name of the religion that developed in Mesopotamia?
Zoroastrianism in 6th century BC
What civilization developed in northeastern Africa?
What river system did Egypt depend on?
What role did the Mediterranean and Red seas play in the development of Egypt?
The Med and the Red Sea helped provide a foundation for Egyptian civilization, as did the Nile.
What developments/discoveries occurred in the Egyptian civilization?
1. Complex religion
3. Engineering & building
What were 3 of the characteristics of the complex religion that developed in Egypt?
Governance developed as a part of the religion in Egypt. What was the name of the leader of Egypt?
What kind of writing developed in Egypt?
Name a product of the engineering and building developments in Egyptian civilization.
In southern Asia, along which rivers and sea did the Indian civilization develop?
* Indus River
* Ganges (Ganga) River
* Arabian Sea
Name 4 developments that occurred in Indian civilization.
1. Urban culture
2. Planned cities
To what does the development of planned cities refer?
Citywide sanitation systems, for example
What 4 metals were the metallurgists in Indian civilization working with?
Which 4 measurements did the Indian civilization develop?
What river system in east Asia supported one of the 4 river valley civilizations?
What was the name of the civilization that developed along the Yellow River?
What 3 developments took place in Chinese civilizations?
Which of the first 4 river valley civilizations did not develop a form of writing?
The ancient Near East comprised what 4 regions?
1. Tigris Valley
2. Euphrates Valley
3. Fertile Crescent
4. Nile Valley
Using the names of the early civilizations, describe the territory in the ancient Near East.
Where was the first system of independent states formed?
What were the 2 forms of writing in the first writing system?
What 2 massive architectural achievements can be attributed to the ancient Near East?
* Ziggurat (step pyramid)
* Pyramid (smooth sided pyramid)
Which civilization devised ziggurats?
When were ziggurats first built?
Approx. 3000 BC
What inspired the Tower of Babel?
Which civilization devised pyramids?
Were ziggurats inspirations for pyramids?
Where did the first lasting monotheism occur?
Ancient Near East
Did science, mathematics, and astronomy all begin in the ancient Near East?
Where was law first codified?
Ancient Near East.
What 6 cultural contributions are attributed to the ancient Near East?
1. Independent states
3. Ziggurats & pyramids
4. Lasting monotheism
5. Beginning of science, math, astronomy
6. Codification of law
What are the dates for the Mesopotamian civilizations?
3500 - 3000 B.C.
Were the Sumerians creators of Mesopotamia?
Can the Babylonians or the Sumerians be credited with creating:
> large-scale irrigation projects
> an advanced system of mathematics
> invention of the wheel
What role did the ziggurat play in Sumerian culture?
Ziggurats were the center of community life & served as:
T/F: Sargon established the first empire.
True. c. 2371 B.C.
Who was the semilegendary founder of ancient kingdom of Akkad?
Sargon, c. 2371 B.C.
Who conquered the Sumerians?
What are the dates for the Babylonian empire?
Where was Akkad?
North central Mesopotamia
Exact location unknown
The ancient Near East is credited with the first codification of law. Was the name of the code?
The code of Hammurabi
When was the code of Hammurabi, the 1st universal written codification of laws in recorded history, written?
c. 1750 B. C.
The code of Hammurabi was created at the end of which empire?
Babylonian empire: 2300-1750 B.C.
Can we credit the Babylonians with creating the first centralized government?
The Sumerians created an advanced system of mathematics, who made advancements in algebra and geometry?
When did the Hittite civilization exist?
What part of ancient Near East did the Hittites conquer?
* Much of Asia Minor
* Northern Mesopotamia
Where was Asia Minor?
* Western peninsula of Asia that constitutes most of modern Turkey.
* Seems to be about the same as Anatolia
What part of ancient Near East did the Hittites conquer--in modern day terms.
Modern day approximation:
What development is attributed to the Hittites?
Why was iron smelting a significant development?
Iron smelting revolutionized warfare
Assyrian civilization existed from 911 B.C. until???
Describe the basis of Assyrian civilization.
Assyrian civilization was based on:
> Military superiority
Assyrian military techniques included:
* Siege warfare
* Use of iron weapons
Both Babylon and Assyria created...
Assyria is also credited with creating:
* Postal service
* Extensive library
* System of highways
The Chaldeans established the New ??? Empire under Nebuchadnezzar.
New Babylonian Empire
Dates for New Babylonian Empire
Chaldeans lived in ancient Chaldea c 800 B.C., ruled New Babylon beginning in 605 B.C., and were renowned as:
Astronomers and astrologers
In modern terms, where was ancient Chaldea?
What ancient regions did New Babylon comprise?
Chaldeans were renowned as astrologers and astronomers. They also developed:
* Advanced government bureaucracy
* Architectural achievements
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon represent what?
One of the architectural achievements of the Chaldeans.
In 500 B.C., which civilization attempted to unify the entire Near East?
Persia succeeded at establishing what kind of government?
During what civilization did Zoroastrianism develop?
Zoroastrianism developed during the Persian civilization.
Zoroastrianism was an ethical religion based on the concepts of:
Good & Evil
When did Zoroastrianism occur?
What civilization did Persia fail to conquer?
Who conquered Persia?
Alexander the Great in 330 B.C.
Persia is now called...
Which 3 smaller ancient civilizations made unique contributions in the Near East?
The Phoenicians' 4 contributions were:
1. 1st explorers, traders, colonizers of ancient world
2. Invented 1st true alphabet
3. Dominated Mediterranean commerce
. Manufactured glass
. Purple dye--royal purple
The peak of the Phoenician civilization was:
The Lydians occupied what region?
Western Asia Minor
When did the Lydian civilization occur in western Asia Minor?
The Lydians' culture reached its zenith under King ???, also known as the Golden King.
King Croesus was also known as the Golden King
Who was responsible for the 1st coinage of money?
We know that it was in the Near East that the 1st lasting monotheism occurred. What ancient civilization of the Near East established it?
The 1st kingdom of Israelites was established in Palestine by who?
When did Saul establish the Israelites in Palestine?
c 1030-1010 B.C.
The Hebrews divided into two kingdoms after the death of who?
When did Solomon die?
What were the two kingdoms that resulted from the division of the Hebrews after the death of Solomon?
Israel & Judah
The kingdoms of Israel & Judah were destroyed--why?
Disunity & conquest
When was the kingdom of Israel destroyed?
When was the kingdom of Judah destroyed?
The Israelites revolt against Rome resulted in 2 things:
1. Destruction of Jerusalem
2. Forced dispersal of Jews from Palestine
When did the Israelites revolt against Rome?
When were the Jews forced out of Palestine?
c A.D. 132-135
What does the term Jewish Diaspora, or just Diaspora, refer to?
The forced exiles, dispersions, of the Jews from Palestine.
Name the 6 Mesopotamian civilizations that achieved the cultural contributions discussed above.
When did Egypt establish its civilization in the Nile Valley?
Why was Egypt spared the repeated political disruptions characteristic of Mesopotamia?
Generally, Egypt has defensible borders.
How long did the Egyptian civilization last?
Significant aspects of Egyptian civilization include 7 characteristics
1. Life was dominated by spiritual concerns
2. Commerce flourished
3. Agriculture was the basis of the economy
4. Annual flooding of the Nile sustained economy
5. Nile impacted all of Egyptian society
Significant aspects of Egyptian civilization include 7 developments
1. Medical advances
2. Specialized surgery
3. Hieroglyphic writing system
4. Monumental architecture
5. Mathematical precision
What were the spiritual concerns that dominated Egyptian day-to-day life?
Life was dominated by concerns for the:
In what regions did Egyptian commerce flourish?
* Part of Africa
The monumental architecture of Egyptian civilization reflected...
Remarkable building and engineering feats