a "Nation Within a Nation"
issue concerning sovereignty of tribes; Constitution nor common law offered clear guide; tribe relations were determined by series of treaties, agreements, judicial decisions
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
Opposed to a strong central government; saw undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution and insisted on the inclusion of the Bill of Rights. Included Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and Patrick Henry.
(1790) Alexander Hamilton's bill that took on the debts of states still in debt. This angered states that had already paid their debts off. Part of Hamilton's economic plan to create a powerful, national economic power. Only agreed to by moving the country's capital to the Potomac River (VA)
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
French ambassador in America, went around country trying to recruit Americans to fight for French without consent of American government --> kicked out for allowing French warship into Philadelphia, no longer French ambassador in America
The Federalist Papers
Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Hamilton's Bank Bill
Officially proposed by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, to the first session of the First Congress in 1790, the concept for the Bank had both its support and origin in and among Northern merchants and more than a few New England state governments.
Hamilton's "Report on Manufacturers"
as outlined in his Report, Hamilton admired efficiently run factories in which a few managers supervised large numbers of workers. Manufacturing would provide employment, promote emigration, and expand the applications of technology.
the "Indian Menace"
land speculators wanted the Indians removed from their western tracts b/c of all the problems and raids they had
It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the lame-duck Federalists in Congress in 1801 after the election of Democratic-Republican president Thomas Jefferson, this act was a blend of needed judicial reform and partisan politics. The law added six new circuit courts and added 16 new judgeships, along with their support staffs, for outgoing Federalist president John Adams to fill. These judgeships were criticized as "midnight appointments."
Adams signed the commissions for these Federal judges during his last night in office. Demonstrated the Federalists' last minute attempt to keep some power in the newly Republican Government.
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
1795; Spain recognizes US rights to navigate Mississippi (deposit goods at New Orleans), fized N border of FL at 31st parallel, required Spanish authorities to prevent FL Indians from launching raids across the border
Society of the Cincinnati
A society established by former officers of the Revolutionary war as a sort of aristocracy in which traditionalism and social status was important. Thomas Jefferson and other civilians thought that this movement threatened the newly formed republic and feared it could turn into an aristocracy so they worked to disband it. This was showed that nothing would stand in the way of a democratic government. This was crucial as this is the point when most revolutions fail, but the determination from Jefferson ceased this early threat.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
This formula suggested that slaves be counted as 3/5 of a person for taxes and representation in government since, mistakenly, the Constitutional Convention assumed slaves were only 3/5 as productive as the white labor force.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
Washington's "Farewell Address"
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.