Muscle Origins & Insertions

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Iliopsoas

O: Iliac fossa, anterior and lateral surfaces of T12-L5

I: Femur (Lesser trochanter)

A: Hip flexion (adduction, ER)

N: Femoral Nerve, (L 2,3)

Tensor Fascia Latae

O: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

I: Tibia (lateral condyle) (Through iliotibial band)

A: Hip abduction, and flexion

N: Superior gluteal nerve (L4 - 5)

Sartorius

O: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

I: Tibia (Proximal part of medial surface)

A: Hip flexion, ABD and ER; knee flexion

N: Femoral nerve (L2 - L3)

Gluteus Maximus

O: Posterior sacrum and ilium

I: Posterior femnur distal to greater trochanter and to iliotibial band

A: Hip Extension, hyperextension, and external rotation

N: Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L1-5, S1, 2)

Gluteus Medius

O: Outer surface of ilium

I: Femur (lateral surface of greater trochanter)

A: Hip Abduction

N: Superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)

Gluteus Minimus

O: Lateral ilium

I: Femur (anterior border of greater trochanter)

A: Hip abduction & medial rotation

N: Superior gluteal nerve (L4 - S1)

Adductor Magnus

O: Ischium & pubis

I: Entire linea aspera & adductor tubercle

A: Hip adduction

N: Obturator & sciatic nerve (L3,4)

Adductor Longus

O: Pubis

I: Femur (Middle 1/3 of linea aspera)

A: Hip adduction

N: Obturator nerve (L3 - L4)

Adductor Brevis

O: Pubis

I: Femur (proximal part of linea aspera); pectineal line

A: Hip adduction

N: Obturator nerve (L3 - L4)

Gracilis

O: Pubis

I: Tibia (anterior medial surface of Proximal tibia (pes anserinus))

A: Hip adduction

N: Obturator nerve (L2 - L3)

Pectineus

O: Pubis (Superior ramus)

I: Femur (Pectineal line)

A: Hip adduction and flexion

N: Femoral nerve (L2 - L4)

Piriformis

O: Sacrum

I: Femur (Greater trochanter)

A: Hip external rotation

N: Anterior Rami (S1 & S2)

Rectus Femoris

O: Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)

I: Tibia (tuberosity via patellar tendon)

A: Hip flexion; knee extension

N: Femoral nerve (L2 -L4)

Vastus Medialis

O: Linea aspera

I: Tibial tuberosity

A: Knee extension

N: Femoral nerve (L2 -L4)

Vastus Lateralis

O: Linea aspera

I: Tibial tuberosity (via patellar ligament)

A: Knee extension

N: Femoral nerve (L2 -L4)

Vastus Intermedius

O: Anterior femur

I: Tibial tuberosity

A: Knee extension

N: Femoral nerve (L2 -L4)

Biceps Femoris

O: Long head - Ischial tuberosity
Short head - Lateral lip of linea aspera of femur

I: Head of fibula

A: Long head - knee flexion, hip extension Short head - knee flexion

N: Long head - Sciatic nerve (S1 - S3)
Short head - Common peroneal (L5 - S2)

Semimembranosus

O: Ischial tuberosity

I: Tibia (Medial condyle, posterior surface)

A: Knee flexion, hip extension

N: Sciatic nerve (L5 - S2)

Semitendinosus

O: Ischial tuberosity

I: Tibia (Anteromedial surface of proximal tibia (pes anserinus))

A: Knee flexion, hip extension

N: Sciatic nerve (L5 - S2)

Gastrocnemius

O: Femur (medial and lateral condyles)

I: Posterior Calcaneus (via Calcaneal (or achilles) Tendon)

A: Ankle plantarflexion, knee flexion

N: Tibial nerve (S1 - S2)

Popliteus

O: Femur (Lateral condyle)

I: Tibia (Posterior medial condyle)

A: Initiates knee flexion

N: Tibial nerve (L4,5, S1)

Soleus

O: Posterior tibia and fibula

I: Posterior Calcaneus (via calcaneal tendon)

A: Ankle Planterflexion

N: Tibial nerve (L5, S1, S2)

Tibialis Anterior

O: Lateral tibia and interosseous membrane

I: First cuneiform and metatarsal

A: Ankle dorsiflexion and foot inversion

N: Deep peroneal nerve (L4 - S1)

Tibialis Posterior

O: Interosseous membrane, adjacent tibia and fibula

I: Navicular and most tarsals and metatarsals

A: Foot inversion, ankle plantarflexion

N: Tibial nerve (L5 - S1)

Peroneus Longus

O: Fibula (Lateral proximal) and interosseous membrane

I: Plantar surface of 1st cuneiform and metatarsal

A: Foot eversion, assists ankle plantarflexion

N: Superficial peroneal nerve (L4 - S1)

Peroneus Brevis

O: Fibula (Distal part of lateral surface)

I: Base of 5th metatarsal

A: Foot eversion, assists ankle plantarflexion

N: Superficial peroneal nerve (L4 - S1)

Peroneus Tertius

O: Fibula (Distal medial)

I: Base of 5th metatarsal

A: Foot eversion, assists ankle dorsiflexion

N: Deep peroneal nerve (L4 - S1)

Extensor Digitorum Longus

O: Fibula, interosseous membrane, tibia
I: Distal phalanx of 4 lesser toes
F: extension of four lesser toes, ankle dorsiflexion and foot eversion
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Deep peroneal nerve (L4 - S1)

Extensor Hallucis Longus

O: Fibula & interosseous membrane
I: Distal phalanx of great toe
F: Extension great toe, assists ankle dorsiflexion and foot inversion
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Deep peroneal nerve (L4 - S1)

Flexor Digitorum Longus

O: Posterior tibia
I: Distal phalanx of four lesser toes
F: Flexes four lesser toes, assists ankle plantarflexion and foot inversion
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Tibial nerve (L5 - S1)

Flexor Hallucis Longus

O: Posterior fibula and interosseous membrane
I: Distal phalanx of great toe
F: Flexes great toe, assists ankle plantarflexion and foot inversion
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Tibial nerve (L5 - S2)

Rectus Abdominus

O: Pubis

I: Cartilage of 5th, 6th, and 7th ribs and xiphiod process

A: Bilateral: Flexion, compression of abdomen. Unilateral: lateral flexion of the trunk

N: 7th to 12th intercostal nerves (T7 - T12)

External Oblique

O: External surfaces of ribs 5 - 12

I: Illiac crest and linea alba

A: Bilateral: trunk flexion, abdominal compression
Unilateral: lateral flexion, rotation to opposite side

N: 8th - 12th intercostal nerves, iliohypogastric and ilioguinal nerve

Internal Oblique

O: Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia

I: Ribs 10-12, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba

A: Bilateral: Trunk flexion, abdominal compression
Unilateral: lateral flexion, rotation to same side

N: 8th - 12th intercostal nerves, iliohypogastric and ilioguinal nerve

Quadratus Lumborum

O: Iliac crest

I: Transverse processes of L1-L4 and 12th rib

A: Laterally trunk flexion to the same side (Reverse: Pelvic/hip hiking)

N: T12 - L1

Errector Spinae (Sacrospinalis)

(This includes the iliocostalis, longissimus dorsi and spinalis dorsi)

O: Spinous processes, transverse processes and ribs from occiput to sacrum and ilium

I: Spinous processes, transverse processes and ribs from occiput to sacrum and ilium

A: Bilateral: Extend the vertebral column
Unilateral: Laterally flex the vertibral column to the same side

N: Spinal nerves

Sternocleidomastoid

O: Sternum & clavicle

I: Mastoid process

A: Bilateral: Cervical flexion
Unilateral: Rotate head and neck to the opposite side, Flexion to same side

N: Cranial XI (Accessory) (C2,3)

Scalene Muscles

O: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

I: 1st & 2nd ribs

A: Bilateral: assists neck flexion
Unilateral: Laterally flex the head and neck to the same side

N: Lower cervical nerve

Upper Trapezius

O: Occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament.

I: Clavical (lateral third) and Scapula (spine and acromion process)

A: Bilaterally: Extend head and neck.
Unilaterally: Elevation and upward rotation of the scapula. Rotate head and neck to opposit side, laterally flex head and neck to same side.

N: Spinal assessory nerve XI (C3 - C4)

Middle Trapezius

O: Spinous processes of C7-T3

I: Scapula (spine)

A: Retraction of scapula

N: Spinal assessory nerve XI (C3 - C4)

Lower Trapezius

O: Spinous processes of middle & lower thoracic vertebrae

I: Scapula (base of spine)

A: Scapular depression and upward rotation

N: Spinal assessory nerve XI (C3 - C4)

Serratus Anterior

O: Lateral surface of ribs 1 - 8

I: Anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula

A: Scapular Protraction and upward rotation

N: Long thoracic nerve (C5 - C7)

Rhomboid

O: Spinous processes of C7 - T5

I: Scapula (vertebral border between spine and inferior angle)

A: Scapular Retraction, elevation and downward rotation

N: Dorsal scapula nerve (C5)

Levator Scapulae

O: Transverse processes of C1 - C4

I: Scapula (superior vertebral border)

A: Scapular Elevation. Rotate, extend, and laterally flex the head and neck

N: Cervical plexus (C3 - C5)

Anterior Deltoid

O: Clavical (lateral 1/3)

I: Humerus (deltoid tuberosity)

A: Shoulder abduction, flexion, medial rotation and horizontal adduction

N: Axillary nerve (C5 - C6)

Middle Deltoid

O: Scapula (acromion process)

I: Humerus (deltoid tuberosity)

A: Shoulder Abduction

N: Axillary nerve (C5 - C6)

Posterior Deltoid

O: Scapula (spine)

I: Humerus (deltoid tuberosity)

A: Shoulder abduction, extension, hyperextension, lateral rotation and horizonal abduction

N: Axillary nerve (C5 - C6)

Pectoralis Major "Clavicular"

O: Clavical (medial 1/3)

I: Humerus (lateral lip of bicipital groove)

A: Shoulder flexion, Internal rotation, adduction, and horizontal adduction

N: Lateral & medial pectoral nerve (C5 - T1)

Pectoralis Major "Sternal:

O: Sternum, Costal cartilage 1st 6 ribs

I: Humerus (lateral lip of bicipital groove)

A: Shoulder extension, Internal rotation, adduction, and horizontal adduction

N: Lateral & medial pectoral nerve (C5 - T1)

Pectoralis Minor

O: Ribs 3 - 5

I: Scapula (coracoid process)

A: Scapular depression, protraction, and downward rotation

N: Medial pectoral nerve (C8 - T1)

Latissimus Dorsi

O: Spinous process of T7-L5, sacrum, and iliac crest and lower 3 ribs
I: Bicipital groove of humerus (floor and medial lip)
F: Extension, adduction, and internal rotation & hyperextension
(Depression and retraction of shoulder girdle at SC joint by continued action, lateral flexion of trunk by continued action)
L: Superior to Inferior & Lateral to Medial
N: Thoracodorsal nerve (C6 - C8)

Teres Major

O: Axillary border of scapula near inferior angle
I: Medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus (crest of lesser tubercle) (next to latissimus)
F: Extension, adduction, and internal rotation of shoulder joint
L: Lateral to Medial
N: Subscapular nerve (C5 - C6)

Coracobrachialis

O: Coracoid process of scapula
I: Medial surface of middle of humerus (opposite deltoid tuberosity)
F: Stabilizes shoulder joint (Flexion and adduction of shoulder jt.)
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Musculocutaneous nerve (C6 - C7)

Supraspinatus

O: Supraspinous fossa of scapula
I: Greater tubercle of humerus
F: Abduction of shoulder joint
L: Lateral to Medial
N: Suprascapular nerve (C5,6)

Infraspinatus

O: Infraspinous fossa of scapula
I: Greater tubercle of humerus
F: External rotation and horizonal abduction
L: Lateral to Medial
N: Suprascapular nerve (C5,6)

Teres Minor

O: Axillary border of scapula
I: Greater tubercle of humerus
F: External rotation and horizontal abduction
L: Lateral to Medial
N: Axillary nerve (C5,6)

Subscapularis

O: Subscapular fossa of scapula
I: Tubercle of humerus
F: Internal rotation of shoulder joint
L: Lateral to Medial
N: Subscapular nerve (C5 - C6)

Biceps Brachii

O: Short head - coracoid process of scapula
Long head - supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
I: Radial tuberosity of radius
F: Flexion of elbow joint; Supination of forearm (Flexion of shoulder joint; &
Adduction of shoulder jt. (short head)
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 - C6)

Triceps Brachii

O: Long head infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Lateral head- lateral/posterior surfaces of proximal humerus
Medial head - medial/posterior surfaces of distal humerus
I: Posterior surface of olecranon process of ulna
F: Extension of elbow joint
(Adduction and extension of shoulder jt. (long head)
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Radial nerve (C7 - C8)

Anconeus

O: Lateral epicondyle humerus
I: Lateral & inferior to olecranon
F: Assist elbow extension
L: Inferior to superior
N: Radial nerve (C7,8)

Brachialis

O: Distal part of anterior surface of humerus
I: Ulnar tuberosity and coronoid process of ulna
F: Flexion of elbow joint
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 - C6)

Brachioradialis

O: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
I: Styloid process of radius
F: Flexion of elbow joint
L: Inferior to Superior
N: Radial nerve (C5 - C6)

Supinator

O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus and adjacent ulna
I: Anterior surface of proximal radius
F: Supination of forearm
L: Lateral to Medial
N: Radial nerve (C6)

Pronator Teres

O: Medial epicondyle of humerus and Coronoid process of ulna
I: Lateral surface of radius at its midpoint
F: Pronation of forearm, assists elbow flexion
L: Inferior to Superior & Lateral to Medial
N: Median nerve (C6,7)

Pronator Quadratus

O: Distal 1/4 of ulna
I: Distal 1/4 of radius
F: Pronation of forearm
L: Lateral to Medial
N: Median nerve (C8 - T1)

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

O: Medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
I: Pisiform and base of 5th metacarpal
F: Flexion and ulnar deviation of wrist joint
N: Ulnar nerve (C8 - T1)

Flexor Carpi Radialis

O: Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle or humerus
I: Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpal (palmar surface)
F: Flexion and radial deviation of wrist jt
N: Median nerve (C6 - C7)

Palmaris Longus

O: Medial epicondyle humerus
I: Palmar facia
F: Assist wrist flexion
N: Median (C6,7)

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

O: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus
I: Base of 5th metacarpal
F: Extension and ulnar deviation of wrist joint
N: Radial nerve (C6 - C8)

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

O: Supracondylar ridge of humerus
I: Base of 2nd metacarpal
F: Radial deviation with extension of wrist joint
N: Radial nerve (C6 - C7)

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

O: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus
I: Base of 3rd metacarpal
F: Extension (with radial devi
ation) of wrist joint
N: Radial nerve (C6 - C7)

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

O: Common flexor tendon, coronoid process and radius
I: Sides of middle phalanx of the 4 fingers
F: Flexion of PIP and MP joints of fingers
(Flexion of wrist joint)
N: Median nerve (C7,8,T1)

Flexor Digitorum Profundus

O: Upper 3/4 ulna
I: Distal phalanx of the 4 fingers
F: Flexion of DIP and PIP & MP joints of fingers
N: Median and ulnar nerves (C8 - T1)

Extensor Digitorum

O: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus
I: Base of distal phalanx of fingers 2-5
F: Extension of MP, PIP and DIP joints of fingers
N: Radial nerve (C6 - C8)

Extensor Indicis

O: Distal ulna
I: Base of distal phalanx of index finger
F: Extension of MP, PIP, and DIP joints of index finger
N: Radial nerve (C6 - C8)

Extensor Digiti Minimi

O: Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus
I: Base of distal phalanx of 4th finger
F: Extension of MP, PIP, and DIP joints of 4th finger
N: Radial nerve, deep branch (C6 - C8)

Flexor Pollicis Longus

O: Anterior surface of radius
I: Distal phalanx of thumb
F: Flexion of IP and MP & CMC joints of thumb
N: Median nerve (C8 - T1)

Extensor Pollicis Longus

O: Middle posterior ulna and interosseous membrane
I: Base of distal phalanx of thumb, dorsal surface
F: Extension of IP and MP joints of thumb
Extension (and adduction) of the saddle joint of thumb
N: Radial nerve, posterior interosseous nerve (C6 - C8)

Extensor Pollicis Brevis

O: Posterior distal radius
I: Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
F: Extension (and abduction) of saddle joint of thumb
(Extension of MP joint of thumb; Radial deviation of wrist joint)
N: Radial nerve (C6 - C7)

Abductor Pollicis Longus

O: Posterior radius, interosseous membrane and middle ulna
I: Base of 1st metacarpal
F: Abduction (and extension) of saddle joint of thumb
(Radial deviation and flexion of wrist joint)
N: Radial nerve (C6 - C7)

Lumbricales

O: Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus
I: Tendon of extensor digitorum
F: Flexion of MP joints of fingers
Extension of fingers, PIP & DIP
N: First and second lumbricals is Median nerve - Third and fourth lumbricals is Ulnar nerve (C6-8)

Dorsal Interossei

O: Adjacent metacarpals
I: Base of proximal phalanx
F: Abduction and flexion of MP joints of fingers
N: Ulnar nerve (C8 - T1)

Palmar Interossei

O: Respective metacarpals
I: Base of proximal phalanx as originated
F: Adduction and flexion of MP joints of fingers
N: Ulnar nerve (C8 - T1)

Adductor Pollicis

O: Capitate, base of 2nd metacarpal, palmar surface of the 3rd metacarpal
I: Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
F: Adducts thumb
N: Ulnar nerve (C8 - T1)

Thenar Intrinsics

...

Flexor Pollicis Brevis

O:Trapezium and flexor retinaculum
I: Proximal phalanx
F: Flexes CMC & MP joints of thumb
N: Median nerve (C6,7)

Opponene Pollicis

O: Trapezium & flexor retinaculum
I: 1st metacarpal
F: Opposition (flexion and rotation) of saddle joint of thumb
N: Median nerve (C6,7)

Abductor Pollicis Brevis

O: Transverse carpel ligament, tuberosity of scaphoid, and ridge of trapezium
I: Radial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
F: Abduction of saddle joint of thumb
N: Median nerve (C6-7)

Hypothenar Intrinsics

...

Flexor Digiti Minimi

O: (Hook of the) hamate and flexor retinaculum
I: Base of proximal phalanx of 4th finger
F: Flexes CMC & MP joints of 4th finger
N: Ulnar nerve (C8 - T1)

Opponens Digiti Minimi

O: Hamate bone and flexor reticulum
I: 5th metacarpal
F: Opposition (flexion and rotation) carpometacarpal joint of little finger
N: Ulnar nerve (C8 - T1)

Abductor Digiti Minimi

O: Pisiform bone, tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris
I: Proximal phalanx of little finger
F: Abduction of MP joint of little finger
N: Ulnar nerve (C8 - T1)

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