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Define prepuberty:

premenarche

Location of the lavator ani:

one of two muscles of the diaphragm that stretch across the floor of the pelvic cavity, supporting the pelvic organs & surrounding the urethra, vagina & rectum, broad thin muscle

Muscle of the lateral walls:

piriformis, pelvic muscle (posterolateral wall)

Structures of the broad ligament:

double fold of the peritoneum, extends from the lateral aspects of the uterus to pelvic sidewall

What is the round ligament:

fundus to anterior pelvic sidewalls, holds uterus forward

Define anteversion:

the position of the uterus is tipped slightly forward

Normal menarchal uterine size:

6 to 8 cm long, 3 to 5 cm AP, 3 to 5 cm TRV

Layers of the uterus:

Perimetrium: serous outer layer of uterus, serosa
Myometrium: muscular middle layer of uterus composed of thick smooth muscle, supported by connective tissue
Endometrium: inner mucous membrane of uterine body

Functions of TGC:

Time Gain Compensator - increases or decreases echo amplitude at predetermined depth

Define ovulation:

an ovum is released once a month by one of the two ovaries, usually occurs midcycle about day 14 of a 28 day cycle

Vaginal blood supply:

vaginal & uterine arteries, drains into the internal iliac vein

Ovarian blood supply:

receives blood from uterine & ovarian arteries

Regions of the fallopian tube:

Infundibulum - funnel shaped lateral tube that projects beyond the broad ligament. Ampulla - widest part, fertilization occurs. Isthmus - hardest part.
Interstitial - enters the uterus at the cornua

Fallopian tube blood supply:

ovarian arteries & veins

Ovarian position:

attached to the posterior aspect of the broad ligament by mesovarium

Define polymenorrhea:

multiple cycles per month, interval less than 21 days

Define graafian follicle:

a mature ovarian vesicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the ovum

Sonographic appearance of the proliferative phase:

hypoechoic follicle will be present, thin endometrium, uterine lining thick

Names of the retrouterine space:

posterior cul-de-sac, pouch of Douglas

Define space of Retzius:

located between the anterior bladder wall & the pubic symphasis

Define menorrhagia:

abnormally heavy or long periods

Uterine ligaments:

Broad: lateral aspect of uterus to pelvic sidewall
Mesovarium: posterior fold of broad ligament, encloses overy Mesosalpinx: upper fold, encloses fallopian tube
Round: fundus to anterior pelvic sidewall, holds uterus forward Cardinal: extends across pelvic floor laterally, supports the cervix Uterosacral: supports cervix Ovarian: extends from ovary to uterine cornua

Define menarche:

state after reaching puberty in which menses occurs normally every 21 to 28 days

What improves axial resolution:

improved with shorter SPL

Function of color doppler:

the encoded doppler shift as red (toward the Tx) or blue (away from the Tx)

Phases of the menstrual cycle:

proliferative phase - day 1-14. corresponds to the follicular phase of ovarian cycle. menstruation occurs on day 1 to 4. thin endometrium. estrogen level increases as ovarian follicles develop. increasing estrogen levels cause uterine lining to regenerate & thicken. ovulation occurs on day 14.
secretory phase - days 15 to 28. corresponds to luteal phase of ovarian cycle. ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum. corpus luteum secretes progesterone. endometrium thickens. if no pregnancy, estrogen & progesterone decrease. menses on day 28

Define sonohysterography:

AKA: saline infused sonography (SIS) involves the installation of sterile saline solution into the endometrial cavity

Endometrial measurement:

Proliferative phase: 4-8 mm, hypoechoic
Before ovulation: 6-10 mm, isoechoic
After ovulation: 7-14 mm, echogenic

Cleaning of the vaginal probe:

cleaned with disifectant & dried with a towel. then soak in disifectant between uses for at least 10-20 minutes

Vaginal scanning orientation:

the left side of screen corresponds to the cephalic & right side of patient, the right side of the screen corresponds to the caudal & left side of patient

Define Mittleschmerz:

pain associated with ovulation

What may cause arcuate artery calcification:

post menoupausal women & diabetes

Ovarian hormone production:

the anterior pituitary gland to secrete FSH & LH (the surge of FSH & LH)

Gonadal veins:

left ovarian vein drains into left renal vein
right ovarian vein drains into IVC

What improves axial resolution?

focal zones, depth, color

Uterine vasculature:

uterine artery from IIA (internal iliac artery)

Define didelphys uterus:

double uterus with 2 vaginas & cervixes

Define uterine flexion:

when uterus folds over on itself

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