Name the positions of the classical brigade & their functions.
exec chef: In charge of the kitchen
chef de cuisine: reports to exec chef
sous chef: in charge of production & reports to chef
saucier: sauces, stews, hot d'oeuvres, & sautes food to order - highest position under sous chef
poissonier: fish dishes
entremetier: veggie cook
rotisseur: roasted/brasied meats & other lg meats
grillardin: broiled items, deep fried fish/meats
patissier: pastries & desserts
tournant: relief/swing cook
Who is one of the most influential French chefs of the 18th & 19th centuries and what were his two main contributions?
Escoffier - the simplification of classical cuisine and the classical menu & the reorganization of the kitchen
List the ingredients found in the standard mirepoix & the ratio.
Onion (50), Carrots (25), Celery (25)
Describe the salting process & any pertinent details.
Salt proteins when raw before cooking and always taste when salting to make sure you don't oversalt.
List the three forms of cooking w/heat & give examples of each.
Dry: bake, broil, roast
Dry w/fat: saute, pan fry, deep fry
Moist: boil, poach, braise
List & briefly describe the three methods of heat transfer.
conduction: heat transferred from direct contact from each surface
convection: heat transferred through movement of air
radiant: heat transferred through waves
Define what potentially hazardous food is.
Any food that easily harbors bacteria that can cause illness or injury
What is the 4 Hour Rule?
Food must not be in the danger zone for more than 4hrs cumulative from receiving to serving.
List the five steps for properly cleaning tools and equipment in the proper sequence.
5. air dry
What sanitizing solution do we use and in what proportions?
bleach & water - 50 ppm of bleach to water in sink for sanitizing dishes
You are about to open a hot oven in a busy kitchen to remove & check your product. What do you need to have in hand & what do you need to say?
"hot oven!" - have a dry towel & instant read thermometer
You have just finished breaking down a chicken on a cutting board at your station. What do you immediately need to do to avoid cross contamination to other surfaces from your hands tools & board.
Wash & sanitize the cutting board, wash your knives & your hands. New cutting board.
T or F - the best way to defrost a chicken is to leave it out at room temperature
F - best way to defrost is always in the fridge or under running cold water
T or F - cooking time for foods are always exactly as specified in the recipe
F - there are lots of factors that can make the cooking times vary--they are merely a guide
What is the basic recipe & yield for a basic stock.
1 gallon yield
5-6 qts water
1 bouquet garni
Give two important rules to making a flavorful & clear stock.
constantly skim the skum & simmer for the full time period (don't boil) so the flavors fully develop
List three categories of soup & give an example of each.
Clear - chicken noodle
Thick - bisque
Specialty - miso
List the five mother sauces & the liquid for each one.
Bechamel - milk
Espagnole - brown stock
Tomato - tomato + opt stock
Hollandaise - butter
Veloute - white stock
How are bechamel and veloute similar and how are they different.
They are both thickened with a roux. Bechamel is made using milk as its liquid and veloute uses a white stock & blond roux
Name the four parts of a grain & which is the only part found in white (refined) flours?
bran, husk, germ, & *endosperm
What is key to making an emulsified butter sauce, such as beurre fondu or beurre blanc?
To slowly add in cold butter w/the liquid and not scorch, burn or break it
What are the two main types of potatoes and give an example of a dish made from each.
Waxy - roasted new potatoes
Starchy - pommes puree
What are the two main types of rice & what cooking technique is appropriate for each?
pilaf - works well w/ any rice
risotto - arborio rice cooks ideally this way
Describe what you would look for in a properly made sauce.
Shiny, Nappe (thickened sauce) & for the ingredients to be fully emulsified
What is the main difference in how red and white wines are made. And what feature does this give red wines.
Skins are removed from the whites. Red wines have tannins, body & colors because of this.
Process of using stock/wine etc to get all the caramelization/fond off the bottom of the pan.
Define compound butter.
Butter that is flavored & seasonsed when soft w/various ingredients & then rolled & hardened in the fridge.
List the four primal cuts in the forequarter of beef and whether it is tender or tough.
Chuck - tough
Rib - tender
Plate - tender
Brisket - tough
List the three primal cuts in the hindquarter and whether it is tender or tough.
Loin - tender
Round - tough
Flank - tender
List the five primal cuts in a hog, not including the head.
What are the two types of connective tissue found in meats, and what preparation or cooking method is appropriate for each.
Collagen - moist cooking method
Elastin - must be broken down mechanically through pounding, grinding etc
Name the four main tongue tastes and a food that exhibits each one prominently.
Sweet - honey
Salty - soy sauce
Bitter - bitters
Sour - lemon juice, vinegar
Name the five mother sauces, its thickener & liquid
Bechamel: milk & white roux
Espagnole: brown stock & brown roux
Tomato: tomato + opt stock
Hollandaise: butter & eggs
Veloute: white stock & blond roux
Why is it important to rest cooked meats prior to carving & serving?
Because it allows the juices to flow back throughout the meat.
What would be included in the mise en place for plating the main course?
All the items to be plated and any garnishes that are to be used--plates warmed for hot food, chilled for cold food etc.
How does the dark leg meat of chicken differ from the white breast meat and how does this affect the cooking method and doneness temp for each?
The dark meat is tougher because it has a lot more connective tissue and is from a muscle that is utilized often. Cooks better w/moist cooking techniques & takes slightly longer.
Give one reason dry aged beef is more expensive than wet aged.
It can lose up to 20% of its weight through loss of moisture.
The combination of factors, including soil, climate, and environment, that gives a wine its distinctive character
Define baked custard & give an example.
Custard that contains eggs, milk, cream & sugar & thickened thru egg coagulation in oven - creme brulee, pot de creme etc
Define pastry cream & its use
Stovetop custard thickened with cornstarch - used as a filling for tarts
Define fruit coulis & its use
Fruit puree used as a sauce - could be used over baked desserts, ice cream, etc
Define pate brisee & its use
Flaky dough, broken dough - used for quiche, pie top crust, unsweetened
T or F: You must bring the liquids & butter to a full boil before adding the flour when making pate a choux.
T or F: You can substitute egg yolks for whole eggs with no change in the texture of the finished product.
T or F: Leavenors used in pastry and baking can be grouped into three categories: biological, chemical, & mechanical.
T or F: Pie dough is rested and chilled to relax any gluten developed during mixing and firm the butter, making the dough easier to roll out and handle.
What are two common problems that can occur when caramelizing sugar?
Crystallization and burning the sugar & making it bitter.
Describe the process of blind baking and why its important.
Blind baking is baking a pie crust, tart shell etc without filling in it. Dock the crust & place pie weights in it over parchment & then either parbake it or fully bake it if using an unbaked filling. Helps prevent sogginess & keeps crust from rising on bottom & becoming too thick.
What are examples of eggs used in baking & their function?
Whole, yolks, whites - Emulsification, moisture
What are examples of liquids used in baking & their function?
Water, milk - Allows for gluten development
What are examples of fats used in baking & their function?
Butter, shortening - Tenderizer, richness, flavor
What are examples of sweeteners used in baking & their function?
Sugar, honey - Flavor, caramelization
How is pastry cream different from other custards with respect to its ingredients & method of preparation?
Its a stirred custard and thickened with cornstarch.
Name one similarity and one difference between creme brulee and creme caramel.
They are both custards. Creme brulee is usually served in the dish it is baked in and a hard, sugar crust is made using a torch. Creme caramel is turned out upside down and its caramel bottom becomes its top sauce.
What is gluten and whats an example of a product that needs it and a product where you should avoid it. Describe how to avoid developing gluten.
Gluten is a substance made up of proteins found in wheat that provides substance and structure. French bread requires gluten & it should be avoided in pie dough. Can be avoided by kneading dough as minimally as possible & keeping the ingredients chilled.
What is the purpose of scoring bread loaves before baking?
To allow for controlled expansion - so that the bread breaks in a decorative fashion rather than where you don't want it to.
What are the two main categories of offal and examples of each?
Glandular: liver, kidneys, intestines, sweetbreads
Muscular: tongue, oxtail, heart, tripe
T or F: Buffalo or American Bison, is raised on ranches in the western US and Canada and handled like beef.
"Preserved" - Satured in fat (poultry, meat), vinegar (veggies), sugar (fruit), or alcohol (fruit)
Forcemeat that is wrapped in the skin of the animal it came from, or in a long cylinder shape.
List the mother sauces & the liquid for each one.
Bechamel - milk
Espagnole - brown stock
Tomato - tomato
Hollandaise - butter
Veloute - white stock